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 The Integrals of Prayer And Its Recommended Matters

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PostSubject: The Integrals of Prayer And Its Recommended Matters   Sun Jul 17, 2011 11:49 am

The Integrals of Prayer And Its Recommended Matters



Prayer has integrals and recommended matters (sunnahs). The integrals are those matters that are part of the prayer and, if not done the prayer is invalid. The recommended matters are the rewardable matters the leaving out of which does not invalidate the prayer. They are done following in the footsteps of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.



The integrals of prayer are seventeen (17):

1- To have the intention in the heart of performing the prayer and of its obligation when obligatory, and to specify the prayer which is performed for a particular reason or time.

2- To say Allahu Akbar hearing oneself while having the intention in the heart.

3- To stand (qiyam) for the obligatory prayer, when able. If unable, one prays sitting. If unable, one prays lying one one’s side. If unable, one prays lying on one’s back.

4- To recite the Fatihah, including:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم

Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim.

Also, doubling the letters that must be doubled, in order and succession without lengthy interruption, articulating its letters properly, and avoiding the error which breaches the meaning, such as saying (an^amtu) instead of (an^amta). It is prohibited to commit an error that does not breach the meaning. However, it does not invalidate the prayer [unless done intentionally].

5- To bow until one's palms could reach one's knees (ruku^).

6- To remain motionless in ruku^ for the duration of saying subhan Allah (tuma'ninah).

7- To straighten up after ruku^ (i^tidal).

8- To remain motionless in i^tidal for the duration of saying subhan Allah (tuma'ninah).

9- To prostrate (perform sujud) twice by putting all or part of one's uncovered forehead on one's praying ground, with one's lower body (buttocks) higher than one's upper part, and putting part of one's knees, the inside of one's hands and the bottom of one's toes on the ground.

10- To have tuma'ninah in prostration (sujud).

11- To sit between the two prostrations.

12- To have tuma'ninah in this sitting.

13- To sit for saying the last tashahhud, the Salatu ^alan-Nabiyy and the closing salam.

14- To say the last tashahhud. The full tashahhud is:

التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لله، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُه، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحِين، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلهَ إِلاَّ الله وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله.

At-Tahiyyatul-mubarakat, as-Salawatut-tayyibatu lillah. As-Salamu ^alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. As-Salamu ^alayna wa ^ala ^ibadillahis-salihin. Ash-hadu alla ilaha illallah, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah

To say the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy. The minimum is: Allahumma salli ^ala Muhammad. It is better to say the full Salatul-Ibrahimiyyah.

16- To say the closing salam. The minimum is As-Salamu ^alaykum.

17- To observe the order. To intentionally perform the integrals of prayer out of order invalidates the prayer. An example is if one intentionally prostrated before bowing (ruku^). If one forgets (to perform) an integral, one must return to perform it unless one has reached that same integral or what is after it in the next or subsequent rak^ah. In such a case, what was performed in-between is cancelled. An example is of one did not remember leaving our ruku^ except after having performed the ruku^ or prostration of the subsequent rak^ah. In such a case, what is between the missing ruku^ and the performed ruku^ is cancelled, and what is after this performed ruku^ is the continuation of the rak^ah.



Recommendations of Prayer:

There are many recommended (sunnah) matters during prayer and among them are:

Placing the right hand over the left above the belly button and under the chest.

Reciting the du^a’ of iftitah before reciting the Fatihah in the first rak^ah only.

Reciting a Surah after the Fatihah in the first two rak^ahs.

Saying Allahu Akbar upon straightening and bending.

Saying subhana Rabbiyal-^adhim, three times during bowing (ruku^).

Saying sami^allahu liman hamidah, during the straightening after bowing (i^tidal).

Saying subhana Rabbiyal-a^la, three times during the prostration (sujud).

Saying Allahumma ghfir li warhamni wahdini wa ^afini warzuqni during the sitting in between the two prostrations.

Reciting the Salatul-Ibrahimiyyah after the final tashahhud.

Adding wa rahmatullah during the final salam. Hence, one says: As-Salamu ^alaykum wa rahmatullah.

Saying As-salamu ^alaykum a second time and turning to the right side during the first one and to the left side during the second one.




Questions:

1. Give the definition of the integrals of prayer?

2. When is the intention made? What must one's intention be when praying Dhuhr?

3. If one is unable to pray standing, what must one do? If one is unable to sit?

4. What are the matters to which one must pay attention when reciting the Fatihah?

5. What is ruku^? What is meant by tuma'ninah?

6. What is meant by i^tidal?

7. How does one perform sujud? How many times does one do sujud during a single rak^ah?

8. State the complete final tashahhud?

9. What is the minimum of the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy? What is the minimum salam?

10. What does keeping the order mean?

11. What is recommended to recite before the Fatihah?

12. What is recommended to recite after the Fatihah? In what rak^ahs?

13. What is recommended to say during ruku^? During i^tidal?

14. What is recommended to say during sujud? During the sitting between the two sujuds?

15. List some of the other recommended matters during prayer.
Lesson 9
Conditions for the Validity of Prayer



The conditions of prayer are the matters that are not part of the prayer, but must be satisfied before starting the prayer. They are:

1- Islam: Prayer is not valid from a blasphemer.

2- To be at the age of mental discrimination (mumayyiz), i.e., the age at which the child understands when addressed and answers when asked.

3- To be pure from both ritual impurities. One must have wudu', and clear of the states of minor and major ritual impurity.

4- The clothes, body, place, and what one is carrying must be pure (tahir). If one prays while carrying in one’s pocket a piece of cloth that had najas-filth on it, one’s prayer is invalid.

5- To cover one's unlawful nakedness. For the man this is from his belly button to his knees. The woman has to cover her entire body except for her face and hands.

6- To be certain that the prayer time has set in.

7- Not to deem any of its integrals recommended.

8- To direct one's chest toward the Qiblah, which is in Makkah.

If one leaves out any one of these conditions, one’s prayer is invalid.



Questions:

1. List some of the conditions of prayer.

2. What is mental discrimination (tamyiz)?

3. How is one clear of the ritual impurities?

4. Is the prayer of one who carries a najas-filth in one’s pocket valid?

5. What is the unlawful nakedness for a man during prayer? For a woman?

6. What is the Qiblah in prayer?

7. What is the judgment of the prayer of one who leaves out any of these conditions?
Lesson 10
Invalidators of Prayer



During prayer, the Muslim should be God-fearing and should avoid anything that invalidates his prayer. The invalidators of prayer are:

1- For the praying person to utter words which do not include mentioning Allah. Uttering two letters or any letter that carries a meaning while remembering that one is praying invalidates one’s prayer.

2- Performing many moves that last for the duration of one rak^ah. According to some scholars, three consecutive moves invalidate the prayer.

3- Eating even if it is little, like a sesame seed, except if one forgets.

4- Drinking while remembering that one is in the prayer, even if it is little, like swallowing a drop of water on one’s lips.

5- Performing one move, with the purpose of playing.

6- Performing an excessive move such as jumping.

7- Purposely adding an extra integral of action, such as making sujud three times in one rak^ah.

8- Intending to interrupt prayer. In this case one’s prayer becomes invalid immediately.

9- Making the intention to interrupt prayer contingent on the occurrence of an incident, such as saying in one’s heart: “If my brother comes, I will interrupt my prayer and open the door for him.” This invalidates the prayer immediately, even if one’s brother did not come.

10- Hesitating about interrupting the prayer.

11- Completing an integral while the doubt is still persisting about one's intention during the opening Allahu Akbar (taharrum), or doubting for a long time about this intention. If someone recites the Fatihah while doubting whether or not one intended Dhuhr or ^Asr, one’s prayer is invalid. The prayer is invalid when the time of doubt is long, even if an entire integral did not pass. An example is if one recited the entire Surah of Tabarak while one doubted one’s intention, then one’s prayer is invalid.

Questions:

1. What is the judgment of the prayer of one who purposely talks, other than mentioning Allah?

2. What is the judgment of one who utters one or two meaningful letters?

3. What is the judgment of the prayer of one who moved three consecutive moves during the prayer?

4. What is the judgment of the prayer of one who purposely ate or drank during prayer?

5. What is the judgment of the prayer of one who did an action with the intention of playing during prayer?

6. Give an example of an excessive move.

7. What is the judgment of the prayer of one who purposely added an integral in the prayer? Give an example.

8. What is the judgment of the prayer of one who intended to interrupt one’s prayer? Or makes it contingent upon the occurrence of something? Or hesitates about interrupting one’s prayer?

9. What is the judgment if an entire integral passed while one was doubting the intention? If a long time passed while one doubted?
Lesson 11
Congregational Prayer (Jama^ah)



The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, encouraged performing the congregational prayer. He ordered the people to pray the five (5) prayers in congregation in a way that any one who wants to pray in congregation can easily find the place to do so. When people gather in obedience to Allah, great benefits do occur.



The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

صَلاَةُ الْجَمَاعَةِ تَفْضُلُ صَلاَةَ الْفَذِّ بِسَبْعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ دَرَجَة



Salatul-jama^ati tafdulu salatal-fadhdhi bisab^iw wa ^ishrina darajah.

Which means: “The congregational prayer has 27 times more reward (thawab) than the prayer of an individual.” (Related by Ibn Majah, at-Tirmidhiyy, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.)



Praying every obligatory prayer in congregation is a communal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent, and unexcused men.


How to Pray the Congregational Prayer (Jama^ah):

One of the people who want to pray the congregational prayer steps forward to lead the others in prayer. He is called the leader (imam). It is better if the imam is the most knowledgeable among them and the one who recites Qur’an the best.



The rest of the people stand behind the imam in straight rows, leaving no spaces in between each other. Then the imam says the opening Allahu Akbar (takbiratul-ihram). Then other people say their opening Allahu Akbar coupled with the intention. The intention means that every one of them says in one’s heart, for example, while saying Allahu Akbar with one’s tongue: “I now intend to pray the obligatory ^Asr prayer in congregation.”



The imam says all the sayings of Allahu Akbar, sami^allahu liman hamidah, and as-salamu ^alaykum out loud in all the prayers. If it is a loud prayer, the imam also says the Fatihah, Amin, and the Surah after it out loud in the first two rak^ahs. The follower says Amin out loud, but he does not recite the Surah after the Fatihah in the loud prayer; rather, he does this only in the soft prayer.



The Conditions of Following the Imam in Prayer:

Everyone who follows an imam while performing prayer—the Jumu^ah Prayer or other prayers–must fulfill the following obligations:



The follower (ma’mum) must not be ahead of his imam in the standing position or in saying the opening Allahu akbar. The prayer of the follower is invalid if he says his opening Allahu akbar during that of the imam. Doing other actions at the same time as the imam in other parts of the prayer is disliked (makruh), with the exception of saying: “Amin ”.

It is unlawful (haram) for the follower (ma’mum) to precede the imam by one integral of action. One’s prayer is invalidated by inexcusably preceding the imam by two consecutive integrals of action, whether both are long or one is long and the other is short. Similarly, the ma’mum invalidates his prayer if he lags behind the imam by two integrals of action, despite an excuse. If the ma’mum stays behind to finish the Fatihah and during this time the imam has finished his ruku^ and two prostrations, and has sat for the tashahhud or stood up for the following rak^ah, then the ma’mum must stop reciting the Fatihah and be in unison with his imam. In addition to this, the ma’mum must perform a rak^ah after the closing salam of the imam. However, if the ma’mum finishes reciting the Fatihah before the imam has sat for the tashahhud or stood up for another rak^ah, then the ma’mum follows his own order until he catches up with the imam.

The follower must know the movements of his imam.

The follower must be with his imam in a mosque (masjid), or else within 300 cubits.

The follower must not have any barrier between him and the imam which prevents him from reaching the imam.

The follower must have the format of his prayer agree with the format of the imam’s prayer. For example, it is invalid for the performer of the daily obligatory prayer to follow the performer of the Funeral Prayer (Salatul-Janazah).

The follower must not disagree enormously with his imam in a recommended act (sunnah), like the sitting for the first tashahhud. If the imam does it or leaves it, then the ma’mum does it with the imam or stands up with him.



In the Jumu^ah Prayer, the follower must have the intention to follow the imam while saying the opening Allahu akbar, and in other prayers, before following the imam. If the ma’mum was performing the Jumu^ah Prayer without having the intention to follow the imam within the opening Allahu akbar, his prayer would be invalid. In other than the Jumu^ah Prayer, the intention to follow the imam must be in the heart before following the imam in his moves. Following the imam in his moves without the intention to follow invalidates the ma’mum’s prayer. However, if one’s moves agree with the imam’s moves accidentally and unintentionally, one does not invalidate one’s prayer.



Questions:

1. State a hadith of the Prophet that urged the Muslims to pray the prayers in congregation.

2. What is the judgment of the prayer the follower who precedes the imam in saying the opening Allahu Akbar?

3. When must the follower say the opening Allahu akbar?

4. What is the judgment of the prayer of the one who goes ahead of the imam by two integrals of action?

5. What is the judgment if the follower lags behind the imam two integrals without an excuse?

6. How would the follower know the movement of his imam?

7. What is the judgment of the follower who has a barrier between him and the imam that prevents him from reaching the imam?

8. Why is it not valid for the one who is praying Dhuhr to pray following the one praying Janazah?



Lesson 12
The Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah)



Friday is the best day of the week.



The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

خَيْرُ يَوْمٍ طَلَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ الشَّمْسُ يَوْمُ الْجُمُعَةِ فِيهِ خُلِقَ ءَادَمُ وَفِيهِ أُدْخِلَ الْجَنَّةَ وَفِيهِ أُخْرِجَ مِنْهَا.



Khayru yawmin tala^at ^alayhish-shamsu yawmul-jumu^ah. Fihi khuliqa Adam, wa fihi udkhilal-jannah, wa fihi ukhrija minha.

Which means: “Friday is the best day on which the Sun ever rose. In it Adam was created, admitted into Paradise, and taken out of it.” (Narrated by Muslim.)



Allah, ta^ala, made it obligatory to pray the Friday prayer (Jumu^ah) during this day. As a result, the Muslims in all the different countries gather in the main masjid of their town to pray this prayer.



The Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah) is a personal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent, and unexcused males. (Among what is considered an Islamic excuse is for the person to be sick in a way that going to the mosque is a serious hardship on him.)



It is an obligation to pray the Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah) in congregation (jama^ah) if the free, pubescent, and unexcused male inhabitants are forty (40) in number and living in buildings, not in tents.



The Friday Prayer is also obligatory upon the men who intend to stay in the town of Jumu^ah for four whole days, excluding the day of entry and the day of exit, and upon those who reside out of the town, but can hear the resounding call of a person who is standing at its edge closest to them.



The Friday Prayer is two rak^ahs instead of the Dhuhr prayer. It is performed in congregation and preceded by two speeches that the imam gives. The Friday Prayer has other conditions that must be satisfied to be valid. Similarly, the two speeches have integrals and conditions.


The Conditions of the Friday Prayer:

1- The setting in of Dhuhr prayer time.

2- The two speeches must be heard by the forty men.

3- The prayer has to have been performed in congregation by the forty inhabitants.

4- Another Jumu^ah Prayer must not be performed simultaneously in the same town. If the opening Allahu akbar of one prayer preceded that of another, the former would be valid and the latter would be invalid. However, if it was hard for the people to meet in one place, then in as many places as was needed, the Prayers, both earlier and later, would be valid.



Integrals of the Two Speeches:

1- To say al-hamdulillah in both speeches.

2- To perform the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, in both speeches

3- To command the audience to be God-fearing (to have taqwa) in both speeches.

4- To recite an ayah that has a complete meaning in either of the two speeches (it is better for this ayah to be in the first speech).

5- To say a supplication (du^a’ ) for the believers in the second speech.



The conditions of the two speeches:

1- Purification from both states of ritual impurity and from najas-filth on the body, clothes, place, and what is carried by the speaker.

2- To cover the unlawful nakedness.

3- To stand up.

4- To sit between the two speeches.

5- To observe the succession without lengthy interruption between the integrals of the two speeches, and between the two speeches and the prayer.

6- To say the integrals of the two speeches in Arabic. So if the speaker says the integrals in Arabic and the rest in another language, the speeches are valid.




Questions:

1. What is the best day of the week?

2. State a hadith that shows the merit of Friday. Who related it?

3. Upon whom is the Friday Prayer obligatory?

4. When does it become obligatory for the one who intended to reside in a town to pray the Jumu^ah?

5. When does it become obligatory for the one who lives outside of a town to attend the Jumu^ah?

6. How many rak^ahs is the Jumu^ah Prayer? Is the Jumu^ah performed in congregation or singly?

7. What are the conditions of the Jumu^ah prayer? List them.

8. What is the judgment if two Jumu^ahs were performed in one town?

9. List the integrals of the two speeches?

10. What are the integrals that are repeated in both speeches? In what speech is it obligatory to make supplication for the Muslims?

11. List the conditions of the two speeches.
Lesson 13
Fasting



Allah made it obligatory upon every Muslim to fast the month of Ramadan. Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ

Ya ayyuha-lladhina amanu kutiba ^alaykumus-siyam.

Ayah 183 of Suratul-Baqarah means: {He (Allah) made fasting obligatory upon you.}



Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha^ban in the second year after the immigration.



Fasting the month of Ramadan is a great obligation and among the most important matters of Islam. The Muslims look forward to this month because it is the month of goodness, obedience, and blessings. It is also the best month of the year, and in it is the best night of the year, that is, the Night of Qadr.



Fasting is abstaining from anything that invalidates the fast during the day, along with having made the intention during the night. It is an obligation upon every pubescent, sane, and able Muslim to fast. However, it is not valid from the menstruating and postpartum-bleeding women.



Fasting Ramadan becomes obligatory by one of two things:

1- Finishing thirty (30) days of Sha^ban.

2- Seeing the crescent of Ramadan on the thirtieth night of Sha^ban. This is due to the saying of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam:

صُومُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ وَأَفْطِرُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ فَإِنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَكْمِلُوا عِدَّةَ شَعْبَانَ ثَلاَثِينَ يَوْماً.

Sumu liru’yatihi wa aftiru liru’yatih(i). Fa’in ghumma ^alaykum, fa’akmilu ^iddata Sha^bana thalathina yawma.

Which means: "Fast upon seeing the crescent and break your fast upon seeing it. If you could not see the crescent because it was cloudy, then finish the whole thirty days of Sha^ban." (Related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim.)



The one who sees the crescent has to fast. Moreover, the one who does not see it, but is informed by a upright, trustworthy, free Muslim who does not lie is also obligated to fast.



Fasting has two integrals:

1- The intention in the heart every day. One intends in his heart, for example: "I intend to fast tomorrow to fulfill the obligation of fasting Ramadan this year, faithfully and seeking the reward from Allah.”

The time of the intention is from sunset until the Fajr prayer begins.

2- To abstain from anything that invalidates fasting, from the appearance of the true dawn to the sunset.



The invalidators of the fast are many. Among them:

1- Eating, even if as little as a sesame seed and drinking, even if one drop of water or medicine, while remembering that one is fasting.

2- Droplets in the nose or ear invalidate the fasting if the medicine reaches the cavity of the body. Likewise, the enema, and penile and vaginal douche. The eye drop, on the other hand, does not invalidate the fast. Similarly, hypodermic, intramuscular, and intravenous injections do not invalidate fasting.

3- Losing consciousness for the whole day from Fajr to sunset. Also, losing sanity for one moment.

4- Vomiting: Placing one's finger or what is similar down one’s throat to cause oneself to vomit invalidates the fast. If one involuntarily vomits and does not swallow any of it, then one’s fasting is not invalidated.

5- Apostasy of any type: beliefs, actions, or sayings.



Whoever invalidates his fast by eating, drinking, or intentional vomiting is sinful. He is also obligated to make up the invalidated days immediately after Ramadan and the ^Id day. However, he is not obligated to pay money to the poor Muslims as expiation.



Note:

It is unlawful (haram) to fast the two days of ^Idul-Fitr and ^Idul-Ad-ha, and the three days after ^Idul Ad-ha, known as the days of Tashriq.



Supplication:
اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ صُمْتُ وَعَلَى رِزْقِكَ أَفْطَرْتُ



Allahumma laka sumtu wa^ala rizqika aftart.

Which means: O Allah, I fasted seeking your reward, and by your sustenance I break my fast.



Also, when he broke his fast the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, used to say:

ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ وَابْتَلَّتِ الْعُرُوقُ وَثَبَتَ الأَجْرُ إِنْ شَاءَ الله



Dhahabadh-dhama’u wabtallatil-^uruqu wathabatal-ajru insha’ Allah.

Which means: “The thirst is gone. My veins are dampened and the reward has been earned, by Allah's will.” (Related by Abu Dawud.)




Questions:

1. What month did Allah make it obligatory to fast?

2. State an ayah that indicates that it is obligatory to fast.

3. When did Allah reveal the obligation of fasting?

4. What is fasting?

5. Who is obligated to fast?

6. How is the start of Ramadan confirmed? Give a hadith concerning it.

7. What should the one who does not see the crescent do?

8. What are the integrals of fasting?

9. When is the time of the intention? What does the one who wants to fast intend?

10. List some of the invalidators of fasting.

11. What are the days in which it is unlawful (haram) to fast?
Lesson 14
Zakah



Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an:

وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ



Wa aqimus-Salata wa atuz-Zakah.

Ayah 43 of Suratul-Baqarah means: {Perform the prayers and pay Zakah.}



According to the Arabic language, Zakah means: purification and growth. Islamically, it is the name for that which is paid in a specific way, as a result of having money, or one being alive. It was given this name, because the money grows by the blessing of giving Zakah and because it purifies the one who gives it from being sinful.



Zakah is among the major matters of Islam. During the second year after the migration, Allah made it obligatory.



Among the items that Zakah is obligatory on are:

1- Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats.

2- The staple crops: These are the crops that one stores to eat in other than times of necessity, like wheat, barely, and corn.

3- Fruits: It is obligatory in two of the fruits: palm trees (dates) and grape vines (raisins).

4- Trade articles: These are articles used for the purpose of making a profit. If one uses some money to buy and sell and then buy and sell and so on, with the purpose of gaining money, then this is trading.

5- Gold and silver.

6- Zakatul-Fitr is also obligatory: This is Zakah for the body, not money. The Muslim pays it on behalf of himself, his Muslim wife, young children, and Muslim poor parents during the month of Ramadan or on the day of ^Idul-Fitr.



Those who Deserve Zakah

It is permissible to pay Zakah only to those who deserve it. These are the eight types whom Allah mentioned in the Qur’an in Ayah 60 of Suratut-Tawbah:

إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاء وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ



Innamas-sadaqatu lilfuqara’i wal-masakini wal-^amilina ^alayha wal–mu’allafati qulubuhum wa fir-riqabi wal-gharimina wa fi sabilillahi wabnis-sabil.

Which means: {Zakah must be exclusively paid to the fuqara’, masakin, wal-^amilina ^alayha, mu'allafatu qulubuhum, riqab, gharimun, fi sabilillah, and ibnus-sabil.}



1- Al-Fuqara’ : The poor who earn less than half of their basic needs.

2- Al-Masakin: The poor who earn half or more, but not all their basic needs.

3- Al-^Amiluna ^Alayha: The Zakah workers who are assigned by the caliph and work without pay.

4- Al-Mu'allafatu Qulubuhum: The new converts to Islam whose hearts are to be reconciled, whose peers may embrace Islam if these Muslims are given money.

5- Ar-Riqab: The slaves who are short in satisfying their contract for purchasing their freedom from their owners.

6- Al-Gharimun: Those who are unable to pay their debts.

7- Fi sabilillah: The volunteer fighters who fight for the sake of Allah. This does not include every voluntary good deed.

8- Ibnus-Sabil: The travelers who do not have enough to enable them to reach their destination.







The Conditions of Zakah

There are two types of conditions for Zakah: conditions that make it obligatory and conditions for its validity.



The conditions that make it obligatory are five: Islam, freedom, total ownership, the passage of one year for the items which require one year to pass, and to own the quotum, which is the minimum amount that is subject to Zakah. Also the animals must have been grazed in a pasture that is not owned by anybody and must be animals that are not used for work.



The conditions of Zakah’s validity are:

1- Paying it to the aforementioned eight types of people who deserve it.

2- Paying it to a Muslim, because it is invalid to pay it to a blasphemer.

3- Paying it to a free person, because it is invalid to pay it to a slave, except the Mukatab (the slave that has a contract with his owner to be set free if he works and gives a certain amount of money to his owner within a specific time.).

4- To pay it to someone who is not a descendant of Hashim or Al-Muttalib.




Questions:

1. State an ayah in which it was ordered to pay Zakah.

2. What does Zakah mean linguistically? Religiously?

3. In what year was Zakah made obligatory?

4. What are the articles on which Zakah is due?

5. Which animals are subject to Zakah?

6. What crops are subject to Zakah?

7. Which metals are subject to Zakah?

8. What is the Zakah of Fitr?

9. List those who deserve Zakah.

10. What does fi sabilillah mean?
Lesson 15
Hajj and ^Umrah



Allah, ta^ala, said:

وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً



Wa lillahi ^alan-nasi hijjul-bayti manis-tata^a ilayhi sabila.

Ayah 97 of Surat Al ^Imran means: {Allah made Hajj to the Ka^bah obligatory upon those who are able.}



Hajj is among the most important matters of Islam. Performing Hajj and ^Umrah once in a lifetime is obligatory upon the Muslim who is free, accountable, and able. Performing them repeatedly after that time is considered sunnah.



Hajj has a special merit that other acts of obedience do not have, in that it clears one of all sins, enormous and small. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

مَنْ حَجَّ فَلَمْ يَرْفُثْ وَلَمْ يَفْسُقْ خَرَجَ مِنْ ذُنُوبِهِ كَيَوْمَ وَلَدَتْهُ أُمُّهُ



Man hajja falam yarfuth wa lam yafsuq kharaja min dhunubihi kayawma waladat-hu ummuh.

Which means: “Whoever performs Hajj without copulating or committing enormous sins is clear of his sins as he was on the day his mother gave birth to him.”



For this special merit to hold: one’s intention must be sincere to Allah, ta^ala, one’s money used for Hajj must be lawful, and one must avoid commiting enormous sins (fusuq). It is also a condition to refrain from sexual intercourse. Among what indicates the special merit of Hajj is that it combines disciplining oneself by spending money and effort in the way of hunger, thirst, staying up at night, overcoming hardships, and parting from one's country, family, and friends, all in obedience to Allah.



The integrals of Hajj and ^Umrah:

The integral is that without which Hajj and ^Umrah are not valid. Therefore, the Hajj of whoever leaves out an integral is invalid. Moreover, it is not sufficient for one to make it up by paying expiation or the like. One has to perform this missed integral.



The integrals of Hajj are six:

1. To have the intention to be in the state of pilgrimage (ihram). So one says in one’s heart for example: I now enter into the actions of Hajj for the sake of Allah.

2. To be at ^Arafah, even for a moment, between the start of Dhuhr on the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah and the dawn of the following day.

3. To circumambulate the Ka^bah seven times, making sure that the Ka^bah is on one’s left side, starting with the Black Stone. It is a condition for one to be clear of both ritual impurities.

4. To walk between the mounts of as-Safa and al-Marwah seven times. It is not a condition for one to be in the state of purification. However, one must start with as-Safa and end at al-Marwah.

5. Shaving or trimming the hair. This is satisfied by cutting at least three hairs. The women trim, but they do not shave.

6. The order in most integrals. To do this, one circumambulates the Ka^bah first. One must delay shaving or trimming and the obligatory circumambulation (tawaful-ifadah) until after standing in ^Arafah.



The integrals of ^Umrah are five:

1. To have the intention. One intends in one’s heart, for example: "I now intend to perform ^Umrah for the sake of Allah " (the state of Ihram).

2. Circumambulating the Ka^bah (tawaf).

3. To walk between the Safa and Marwah (sa^y ).

4. Shaving or trimming the hair (halq or taqsir).

5. Keeping all the integrals in order, as they were mentioned here.



Requisites of Hajj or ^Umrah:

The requisite is that without which Hajj or ^Umrah is valid, but it is an obligation to do. If left out, slaughtering or giving expiation can make up the requisite. If one leaves it intentionally, then one is sinful.



Among the requisites of Hajj:

1. To have the intention of ihram before crossing the site prescribed for it (miqat).

2. To throw seventy (70) pebbles at the three stations (jamrahs): al-jamrah as-sughra, al-wusta, and al-^aqabah.

3. To stay at night in Muzdalifah, a place close to ^Arafah from which the pebbles are picked up for throwing.

4. To stay at night in Mina, a place between Makkah and ^Arafah but it is closer to Makkah.

5. To perform the farewell circumambulation.



If one leaves one of the requisites, one is obligated to slaughter a sheep. The one who is unable must fast ten days, three of which while in Hajj and seven when one returns home.







Prohibitions during Ihram



It is unlawful for the man to do two things:

Cover his head

To wear clothes that surround the body by way of sewing, felting, or the like.



It is unlawful for the woman to:

Cover her face.

Wear gloves.



It is unlawful for both men and women while in ihram to:

Wear perfumes.

Anoint the head or beard with oil, melted grease, or the like.

Remove fingernails, toenails, and hair.

Conduct a marriage contract.

Hunt an Islamically edible wild land animal, like the deer.




Questions:

1. Who is obligated to perform Hajj? How many times is it obligatory during one's lifetime?

2. What is the merit of Hajj? State the hadith.

3. List the integrals of Hajj.

4. What is meant by ihram?

5. What is the time of staying in ^Arafah?

6. What do shaving and trimming mean?

7. What are the integrals of ^Umrah?

8. List some of the requisites of Hajj?

9. List what is prohibited upon the one in the state of ihram for Hajj or ^Umrah.



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