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 Fasting RAMADAN

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PostSubject: Fasting RAMADAN   Sun Jul 17, 2011 12:03 pm

Fasting



Allah made it obligatory upon every Muslim to fast the month of Ramadan. Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ

Ya ayyuha-lladhina amanu kutiba ^alaykumus-siyam.

Ayah 183 of Suratul-Baqarah means: {He (Allah) made fasting obligatory upon you.}



Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory during the month of Sha^ban in the second year after the immigration.



Fasting the month of Ramadan is a great obligation and among the most important matters of Islam. The Muslims look forward to this month because it is the month of goodness, obedience, and blessings. It is also the best month of the year, and in it is the best night of the year, that is, the Night of Qadr.



Fasting is abstaining from anything that invalidates the fast during the day, along with having made the intention during the night. It is an obligation upon every pubescent, sane, and able Muslim to fast. However, it is not valid from the menstruating and postpartum-bleeding women.



Fasting Ramadan becomes obligatory by one of two things:

1- Finishing thirty (30) days of Sha^ban.

2- Seeing the crescent of Ramadan on the thirtieth night of Sha^ban. This is due to the saying of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam:

صُومُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ وَأَفْطِرُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ فَإِنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَكْمِلُوا عِدَّةَ شَعْبَانَ ثَلاَثِينَ يَوْماً.

Sumu liru’yatihi wa aftiru liru’yatih(i). Fa’in ghumma ^alaykum, fa’akmilu ^iddata Sha^bana thalathina yawma.

Which means: "Fast upon seeing the crescent and break your fast upon seeing it. If you could not see the crescent because it was cloudy, then finish the whole thirty days of Sha^ban." (Related by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim.)



The one who sees the crescent has to fast. Moreover, the one who does not see it, but is informed by a upright, trustworthy, free Muslim who does not lie is also obligated to fast.



Fasting has two integrals:

1- The intention in the heart every day. One intends in his heart, for example: "I intend to fast tomorrow to fulfill the obligation of fasting Ramadan this year, faithfully and seeking the reward from Allah.”

The time of the intention is from sunset until the Fajr prayer begins.

2- To abstain from anything that invalidates fasting, from the appearance of the true dawn to the sunset.



The invalidators of the fast are many. Among them:

1- Eating, even if as little as a sesame seed and drinking, even if one drop of water or medicine, while remembering that one is fasting.

2- Droplets in the nose or ear invalidate the fasting if the medicine reaches the cavity of the body. Likewise, the enema, and penile and vaginal douche. The eye drop, on the other hand, does not invalidate the fast. Similarly, hypodermic, intramuscular, and intravenous injections do not invalidate fasting.

3- Losing consciousness for the whole day from Fajr to sunset. Also, losing sanity for one moment.

4- Vomiting: Placing one's finger or what is similar down one’s throat to cause oneself to vomit invalidates the fast. If one involuntarily vomits and does not swallow any of it, then one’s fasting is not invalidated.

5- Apostasy of any type: beliefs, actions, or sayings.



Whoever invalidates his fast by eating, drinking, or intentional vomiting is sinful. He is also obligated to make up the invalidated days immediately after Ramadan and the ^Id day. However, he is not obligated to pay money to the poor Muslims as expiation.



Note:

It is unlawful (haram) to fast the two days of ^Idul-Fitr and ^Idul-Ad-ha, and the three days after ^Idul Ad-ha, known as the days of Tashriq.



Supplication:
اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ صُمْتُ وَعَلَى رِزْقِكَ أَفْطَرْتُ



Allahumma laka sumtu wa^ala rizqika aftart.

Which means: O Allah, I fasted seeking your reward, and by your sustenance I break my fast.



Also, when he broke his fast the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, used to say:

ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ وَابْتَلَّتِ الْعُرُوقُ وَثَبَتَ الأَجْرُ إِنْ شَاءَ الله



Dhahabadh-dhama’u wabtallatil-^uruqu wathabatal-ajru insha’ Allah.

Which means: “The thirst is gone. My veins are dampened and the reward has been earned, by Allah's will.” (Related by Abu Dawud.)




Questions:

1. What month did Allah make it obligatory to fast?

2. State an ayah that indicates that it is obligatory to fast.

3. When did Allah reveal the obligation of fasting?

4. What is fasting?

5. Who is obligated to fast?

6. How is the start of Ramadan confirmed? Give a hadith concerning it.

7. What should the one who does not see the crescent do?

8. What are the integrals of fasting?

9. When is the time of the intention? What does the one who wants to fast intend?

10. List some of the invalidators of fasting.

11. What are the days in which it is unlawful (haram) to fast?
Lesson 14
Zakah



Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an:

وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ



Wa aqimus-Salata wa atuz-Zakah.

Ayah 43 of Suratul-Baqarah means: {Perform the prayers and pay Zakah.}



According to the Arabic language, Zakah means: purification and growth. Islamically, it is the name for that which is paid in a specific way, as a result of having money, or one being alive. It was given this name, because the money grows by the blessing of giving Zakah and because it purifies the one who gives it from being sinful.



Zakah is among the major matters of Islam. During the second year after the migration, Allah made it obligatory.



Among the items that Zakah is obligatory on are:

1- Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats.

2- The staple crops: These are the crops that one stores to eat in other than times of necessity, like wheat, barely, and corn.

3- Fruits: It is obligatory in two of the fruits: palm trees (dates) and grape vines (raisins).

4- Trade articles: These are articles used for the purpose of making a profit. If one uses some money to buy and sell and then buy and sell and so on, with the purpose of gaining money, then this is trading.

5- Gold and silver.

6- Zakatul-Fitr is also obligatory: This is Zakah for the body, not money. The Muslim pays it on behalf of himself, his Muslim wife, young children, and Muslim poor parents during the month of Ramadan or on the day of ^Idul-Fitr.



Those who Deserve Zakah

It is permissible to pay Zakah only to those who deserve it. These are the eight types whom Allah mentioned in the Qur’an in Ayah 60 of Suratut-Tawbah:

إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاء وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ



Innamas-sadaqatu lilfuqara’i wal-masakini wal-^amilina ^alayha wal–mu’allafati qulubuhum wa fir-riqabi wal-gharimina wa fi sabilillahi wabnis-sabil.

Which means: {Zakah must be exclusively paid to the fuqara’, masakin, wal-^amilina ^alayha, mu'allafatu qulubuhum, riqab, gharimun, fi sabilillah, and ibnus-sabil.}



1- Al-Fuqara’ : The poor who earn less than half of their basic needs.

2- Al-Masakin: The poor who earn half or more, but not all their basic needs.

3- Al-^Amiluna ^Alayha: The Zakah workers who are assigned by the caliph and work without pay.

4- Al-Mu'allafatu Qulubuhum: The new converts to Islam whose hearts are to be reconciled, whose peers may embrace Islam if these Muslims are given money.

5- Ar-Riqab: The slaves who are short in satisfying their contract for purchasing their freedom from their owners.

6- Al-Gharimun: Those who are unable to pay their debts.

7- Fi sabilillah: The volunteer fighters who fight for the sake of Allah. This does not include every voluntary good deed.

8- Ibnus-Sabil: The travelers who do not have enough to enable them to reach their destination.







The Conditions of Zakah

There are two types of conditions for Zakah: conditions that make it obligatory and conditions for its validity.



The conditions that make it obligatory are five: Islam, freedom, total ownership, the passage of one year for the items which require one year to pass, and to own the quotum, which is the minimum amount that is subject to Zakah. Also the animals must have been grazed in a pasture that is not owned by anybody and must be animals that are not used for work.



The conditions of Zakah’s validity are:

1- Paying it to the aforementioned eight types of people who deserve it.

2- Paying it to a Muslim, because it is invalid to pay it to a blasphemer.

3- Paying it to a free person, because it is invalid to pay it to a slave, except the Mukatab (the slave that has a contract with his owner to be set free if he works and gives a certain amount of money to his owner within a specific time.).

4- To pay it to someone who is not a descendant of Hashim or Al-Muttalib.




Questions:

1. State an ayah in which it was ordered to pay Zakah.

2. What does Zakah mean linguistically? Religiously?

3. In what year was Zakah made obligatory?

4. What are the articles on which Zakah is due?

5. Which animals are subject to Zakah?

6. What crops are subject to Zakah?

7. Which metals are subject to Zakah?

8. What is the Zakah of Fitr?

9. List those who deserve Zakah.

10. What does fi sabilillah mean?
Lesson 15
Hajj and ^Umrah



Allah, ta^ala, said:

وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً



Wa lillahi ^alan-nasi hijjul-bayti manis-tata^a ilayhi sabila.

Ayah 97 of Surat Al ^Imran means: {Allah made Hajj to the Ka^bah obligatory upon those who are able.}



Hajj is among the most important matters of Islam. Performing Hajj and ^Umrah once in a lifetime is obligatory upon the Muslim who is free, accountable, and able. Performing them repeatedly after that time is considered sunnah.



Hajj has a special merit that other acts of obedience do not have, in that it clears one of all sins, enormous and small. The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

مَنْ حَجَّ فَلَمْ يَرْفُثْ وَلَمْ يَفْسُقْ خَرَجَ مِنْ ذُنُوبِهِ كَيَوْمَ وَلَدَتْهُ أُمُّهُ



Man hajja falam yarfuth wa lam yafsuq kharaja min dhunubihi kayawma waladat-hu ummuh.

Which means: “Whoever performs Hajj without copulating or committing enormous sins is clear of his sins as he was on the day his mother gave birth to him.”



For this special merit to hold: one’s intention must be sincere to Allah, ta^ala, one’s money used for Hajj must be lawful, and one must avoid commiting enormous sins (fusuq). It is also a condition to refrain from sexual intercourse. Among what indicates the special merit of Hajj is that it combines disciplining oneself by spending money and effort in the way of hunger, thirst, staying up at night, overcoming hardships, and parting from one's country, family, and friends, all in obedience to Allah.



The integrals of Hajj and ^Umrah:

The integral is that without which Hajj and ^Umrah are not valid. Therefore, the Hajj of whoever leaves out an integral is invalid. Moreover, it is not sufficient for one to make it up by paying expiation or the like. One has to perform this missed integral.



The integrals of Hajj are six:

1. To have the intention to be in the state of pilgrimage (ihram). So one says in one’s heart for example: I now enter into the actions of Hajj for the sake of Allah.

2. To be at ^Arafah, even for a moment, between the start of Dhuhr on the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah and the dawn of the following day.

3. To circumambulate the Ka^bah seven times, making sure that the Ka^bah is on one’s left side, starting with the Black Stone. It is a condition for one to be clear of both ritual impurities.

4. To walk between the mounts of as-Safa and al-Marwah seven times. It is not a condition for one to be in the state of purification. However, one must start with as-Safa and end at al-Marwah.

5. Shaving or trimming the hair. This is satisfied by cutting at least three hairs. The women trim, but they do not shave.

6. The order in most integrals. To do this, one circumambulates the Ka^bah first. One must delay shaving or trimming and the obligatory circumambulation (tawaful-ifadah) until after standing in ^Arafah.



The integrals of ^Umrah are five:

1. To have the intention. One intends in one’s heart, for example: "I now intend to perform ^Umrah for the sake of Allah " (the state of Ihram).

2. Circumambulating the Ka^bah (tawaf).

3. To walk between the Safa and Marwah (sa^y ).

4. Shaving or trimming the hair (halq or taqsir).

5. Keeping all the integrals in order, as they were mentioned here.



Requisites of Hajj or ^Umrah:

The requisite is that without which Hajj or ^Umrah is valid, but it is an obligation to do. If left out, slaughtering or giving expiation can make up the requisite. If one leaves it intentionally, then one is sinful.



Among the requisites of Hajj:

1. To have the intention of ihram before crossing the site prescribed for it (miqat).

2. To throw seventy (70) pebbles at the three stations (jamrahs): al-jamrah as-sughra, al-wusta, and al-^aqabah.

3. To stay at night in Muzdalifah, a place close to ^Arafah from which the pebbles are picked up for throwing.

4. To stay at night in Mina, a place between Makkah and ^Arafah but it is closer to Makkah.

5. To perform the farewell circumambulation.



If one leaves one of the requisites, one is obligated to slaughter a sheep. The one who is unable must fast ten days, three of which while in Hajj and seven when one returns home.







Prohibitions during Ihram



It is unlawful for the man to do two things:

Cover his head

To wear clothes that surround the body by way of sewing, felting, or the like.



It is unlawful for the woman to:

Cover her face.

Wear gloves.



It is unlawful for both men and women while in ihram to:

Wear perfumes.

Anoint the head or beard with oil, melted grease, or the like.

Remove fingernails, toenails, and hair.

Conduct a marriage contract.

Hunt an Islamically edible wild land animal, like the deer.




Questions:

1. Who is obligated to perform Hajj? How many times is it obligatory during one's lifetime?

2. What is the merit of Hajj? State the hadith.

3. List the integrals of Hajj.

4. What is meant by ihram?

5. What is the time of staying in ^Arafah?

6. What do shaving and trimming mean?

7. What are the integrals of ^Umrah?

8. List some of the requisites of Hajj?

9. List what is prohibited upon the one in the state of ihram for Hajj or ^Umrah.

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