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 The Book on Government (Kitab Al-Imara)

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PostSubject: The Book on Government (Kitab Al-Imara)   Thu Jul 21, 2011 10:19 am

The Book on Government (Kitab Al-Imara)

INTRODUCTION

Islam is a social religion, not in the sense that it is through society alone that religion breathes its sacred spirit in the individuals, but in the sense that it aims at inculcating God-consciousness both in individual and society. Jesus said: The Kingdom of Heaven is within you. Islam fully subscribes to this view, since no just kingdom can be founded on earth by unjust men, who have not first created the Kingdom of Heaven in their hearts, but Islam goes a step forward and says that the creation of the Kingdom of Heaven within heart is not enough; this Kingdom of Heaven within must be externalised into a Kingdom of Heaven on earth, so that the organised life of man may be built up on the basis of love, fraternity and justice.

It thus becomes clear that the Islamic State is not an end in itself, but a means to an end, the end being the development of a community of people who stand up for equity and justice, for right against wrong or, to phrase it differently, for the creation of such conditions as would enable the greatest possible number of human beings to live spiritually, morally and physically in accordance with the teachings of Islam.

Thus the founding of an Islamic State is not a sort of" worldly activity," something undesirable, as some people wrongly suppose, but the sine qua non of social justice, as demanded by Islam." The state," says Dr lqbal," from the Islamic standpoint, is an endeavour to transform these ideal principles into space-time forces, an aspiration to realize them in a definite human organization. It is in this sense alone that state in Islam is a theocracy, not in the sense that it is headed by a representative of God on earth who can always screen his despotic will behind his supposed infallibility.

As this State is meant to enforce the law of the Shari'ah within its territorial jurisdiction, it is duty bound to make itself an efficient organ for transforming the high ideals of Islam into reality. The Qur'an, while enumerating the main functions of the Islamic State, says:" Those who, if We establish them in the land, observe worship, and pay the poor-due and enjoin good and forbid evil" (xxii. 41).

This shows that the function of an Islamic State is not only to defend its citizens from external attack and internal disorder, but also to enable individual man and woman to realise the tenets of Islam and their beliefs. in the socioeconomic concerts of their practical life.

So far as the nature of the Islamic State is concerned, it is theocracy with regard to God in the sense that the de jure sovereignty belongs to Allah Whose de facto sovereignty is inherent and manifest in the working of the entire universe and Who enjoys exclusively the sovereign prerogative over all the creation. The Holy Qur'an has stressed this point in so many verses:

" The Command is for none but for Allah: He has commanded that ye obey

none but Him: that is the right path" (xii. 40).

" Follow the revelation sent unto you from your Lord, and do not follow the (so-called) guardians other than Him" (vii. 3).

" And those who do not make their decisions in accordance with that revealed by Allah are (in fact) the deniers of Truth" (v. 44). It thus becomes quite clear that a State established on the basis of God's sovereignty cannot enforce any law in contravention of the Qur'an and the Sunnah even if all the citizens make a demand for it. An Islamic State is, therefore, theocratic in one aspect as it is run according to God-given laws, but it is altogether a differmt theocracy of which Europe has had the bitter experience and in which, a priestly clan is sharply marked off from the rest of the population and exercises an unchecked domination and enforces laws of its own making in the name of God, and thus imposes its own godhood upon the common people. The priest puts himself as a mediator between the masses and the unseen God. Such a system is quite un-Islamic. The theocracy built by Islam is not ruled by a particular religious class, but by the whole community of Muslims including the rank and file. as Allah has not appointed a particular individual, group, race or class as the representative of the Real Sovereign upon the earth, but the whole community. The Qur'an says:" Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will assuredly make them to succeed (the present) rulers and grant them vicegerency in the land just as He made those before them to succeed (others)" (ixiv. 55). This verse makes it clear that all believers have been conferred upon the Caliphate and not a special class or dynasty. Moreover, the Caliphate granted by Allah to the faithful is the popular vicegerency and not a limited one and thus it is run with the consent of the people. The concepts of the Divine Right of Kingship and the infallibility of clergy are alien to the spirit of Islam. Every Muslim stands on equal level with the other Muslim as the vicegerent of the Lord upon the earth. None of them, therefore, enjoys any preference to the other by virtue of high birth or belonging to a special religious group. History is teplete with instances of Caliphs being brought to the court and publicly criticised by ordinary men and women. Even a lowliest villager could dare tell the Commander of the Faithful that he would set him straight like a spindle if he deviates an inch from the poth of righteousness. This shows that the rulers and the officials in the Islamic State are answerable both to God and man for their actions, and the people have every right to criticise. not only their public behaviour, but even their private activities.

In the context of such heavy responsibilities the heading of the Islamic State or assumption of any other important portfolio in its set-up is a very difficult job so much so that that Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) compared it to the slaughtering of one with a blunt knife. No person, therefore. who is conscious of the responsibilities of the job, covets to assume that; he rather shirks it and accepts it only when he is compelled to do so. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) declared that person to be quite unfit for office in an Islamic State who is covetous of it, as he is either ignorant of its grave responsibilities or desires to take undue advantage of his official power.

We enumerate below some of the important rights and duties of an Islamic State.

As for the rights, the Islamic State can claim full loyalty from all its citizen wholehearted cooperation in all sectors of life and complete obedience to the law of the land and the commands of the rulers so long as they are in comformity with the Laws of the Shari'ah. But where the rulers transgress the limits of the citizens have the right, not only to withdraw co-operation, but also to check the rulers from acting against the Commands of Aliah and His Apostle (may peace be upon him).

The citizens are also required to pay taxes due to the State quite willingly and not to misappropriate its funds, and to participate in Jihad in any capacity for which they are deemed fit by the authorities of the Islamic State.

So far as the duties of the Islamic State are concerned, the first and foremost duty is to protect the life, property and honour of every citizen, irrespective of his caste, creed, colour, religion or social status.

Moreover, it is also the duty of the Islamic State to protect the freedom and individual liberty of every citizen so long as there is no valid reason to curtail it. It cannot be done as an arbitrary act. The State is authorised to lay hands upon it through due process of law.

Again, freedom of expression is one of the fundamental rights of the citizen which an Islamic State must respect.

Then, it is also the duty of the Islamic State to see that no citizen remains unprovided for in respect of the basic necessities of life, viz, food, othing, shelter, medical aid and education, for the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said:" The government is the guardian of those who have no guardian."

Moreover, the State is bound to create such conditions in which the good reigns supreme in the society and evil is suppressed and exterminated, and its citizens learn to live as good Muslims.

Chapter 1: THE PEOPLE ARE SUBSERVIENT TO THE QURAISH AND THE CALIPHATE IS THE RIGHT OF THE QURAISH
Book 020, Number 4473:

It has been narrarted on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims among them being subservient to the Muslims among them, and the disbelievers among the people being subservient to the disbelievers among them.

Book 020, Number 4474:

It has been narrated on the authority of Hammam b. Munabbih who said: This is one of the traditions narrated by Abu Huraira from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) who said: People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims among them being subservient to the Muslims among them, and the disbelievers among them being subservient to the disbelievers among them.

Book 020, Number 4475:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. 'Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: People are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil (i. e. in the customs of Islamic as well as pre-Islamic times).

Book 020, Number 4476:

It has been narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left (on the earth),

Book 020, Number 4477:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I joined the company of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) with my father and I heard him say: This Caliphate will not end until there have been twelve Caliphs among them. The narrator said: Then he (the Holy Prophet) said something that I could not follow. I said to my father: What did he say? He said: He has said: All of them will be from the Quraish.

Book 020, Number 4478:

It has been reported on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: The affairs of the people will continue to be conducted (well) as long as they are governed by twelve men. Then the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said words which were obscure to me. I asked my father: What did the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say? He said: All of the (twelve men) will be from the Quraish.

Book 020, Number 4479:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura through another chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4480:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Islam will continue to be triumphant until there have been twelve Caliphs. Then the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said something which I could not understand. I asked my father: What did he say? He said: He has said that all of them (twelve Caliphs) will be from the Quraish.

Book 020, Number 4481:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: This order will continue to be dominant until there have been twelve Caliphs. The narrator says: Then he said something which I could not understand, and I said to my father: What did he say? My father told me that he said that all of them (Caliphs) would be from the Quraish.

Book 020, Number 4482:

It has been reported on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I went with my father to the Messenger of Allah (may peeace be upon him) and I heard him say: This religion would continue to remain powerful and dominant until there have been twelve Caliphs. Then he added something which I couldn't catch on account of the noise of the people. I asked my father: What did he say? My father said: He has said that all of them will be from the Quraish.

Book 020, Number 4483:

It has been narrated on the authority of Amir b. Sa'd b. Abu Waqqas who said: I wrote (a letter) to Jabir b. Samura and sent it to him through my servant Nafi', asking him to inform me of something he had heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He wrote to me (in reply): I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say on Friday evening, the day on which al-Aslami was stoned to death (for committing adultery): The Islamic religion will continue until the Hour has been established, or you have been ruled over by twelve Caliphs, all of them being from the Quraish. also heard him say: A small force of the Muslims will capture the white palace, the police of the Persian Emperor or his descendants. I also heard him say: Before the Day of Judgment there will appear (a number of) impostors. You are to guard against them. I also heard him say: When God grants wealth to any one of you, he should first spend it on himself and his family (and then give it in charity to the poor). I heard him (also) say: I will be your forerunner at the Cistern (expecting your arrival).

Book 020, Number 4484:

Ibn Samura al-'Adawi reported: I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) say, and he then narrated (the above-mentioned hadith).


Chapter 2: APPOINTING ANYONE AS A SUCCEEDING CALIPH OR LEAVING ASIDE THE QUESTION OF APPOINTMENT
Book 020, Number 4485:

It has been narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah b. 'Umar who said: I was present with my father when he was wounded. People praised him and said: May God give you a noble recompense! He said: I am hopeful (of God's mercy) as well as afraid (of His wrath) People said: Appoint anyone as your successor. He said: Should I carry the burden of conducting your affairs in my life as well as in my death? (So far as Caliphate is concerned) I wish I could acquit myself (before the Almighty) in a way that there is neither anything to my credit nor anything to my discredit. If I would appoint my successor, (I would because) one better than me did so. (He meant Abu Bakr.) If I would leave You alone, (I would do so because) one better than me, i. e. the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), did so. 'Abdullah says: When he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) I understood that he would not appoint anyone as Caliph.

Book 020, Number 4486:

It has been reported on the authority of Ibn 'Umar who said: I entered the apartment of (my sister) Hafsa. She said: Do yoa know that your father is not going to nominate his successor? I said: He won't do that (i. e. he would nominate). She said: He is going to do that. The narrator said: I took an oath that I will talk to him about the matter. I kept quiet until the next morning, still I did not talk to him, and I felt as if I were carryint, a mountain on my right hand. At last I came to him and entered his apartment. (Seeing me) he began to ask me about the condition of the people, and I informed him (about them). Then I said to him: I heard something from the people and took an oath that I will communicate it to you. They presume that you are not going to nominate a successor. If a grazer of camels and sheep that you had appointed comes back to you leaving the cattle, you will (certainly) think that the cattle are lost. To look after the people is more serious and grave. (The dying Caliph) was moved at my words. He bent his head in a thoughtful mood for some time and raised it to me and said: God will doubtlessly protect His religion. If I do not nominate a successor (I have a precedent before me), for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not nominate his successor. And if I nominate one (I have a precedent), for Abu Bakr did nominate. The narrator (Ibn Umar) said: By God. when he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr, I (at once) understood that he would not place anyone at a par with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and would not nominate anyone.


Chapter 3: PROHIBITION OF A DESIRE FOR A POSITION OF AUTHORITY AND COVETOUSNESS THEREOF
Book 020, Number 4487:

It has been reported on the authority of 'Abd al-Rahman b. Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to me: 'Abd al-Rahman, do not ask for a position of authority, for if you are granted this position as a result of your asking for it, you will be left alone (without God's help to discharge the responsibilities attendant thereon), and it you are granted it without making any request for it, you will be helped (by God in the discharge of your duties).

Book 020, Number 4488:

The same tradition has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4489:

It has been narrated by Abu Musa who said: Two of my cousins and I entered the apartment of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). One of them said: Messenger of Allah, appoint us rulers of some lands that the Almighty and Glorious God has entrusted to thy care. The other also said something similar. He said: We do not appoint to this position one who asks for it nor anyone who is covetous for the same.

Book 020, Number 4490:

It has been reported on the authority of Abu Musa who said: I went to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and with me were two men from the Ash'ari tribe. One of them was on my right hand and the other on my left. Both of them made a request for a position (of authority) while the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) was brushing his teeth with a tooth-stick. He said (to me): Abu Musa (or 'Abdullah b. Qais), what do you say (about the request they have made)? I said: By God Who sent thee on thy mission with truth, they did not disclose to me what they had in their minds, and I did not know that they would ask for a position. The narrator says (while recalling this hadith): I visualise as if I were looking at the miswak of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) between his lips. He (the Holy Prophet) said: We shall not or shall never appoint to the public offices (in our State) those who with to have them, but you may go, Abu Musa (or Abdullah b. Qais) (to take up your assignment). He sent him to Yemen as governor. then he sent Mu'adh b. jabal in his wake (to help him in the discharge of duties). When Mu'adh reached the camp of Abu Musa, the latter (received him and) said: Please get yourself down; and he spread for him a mattress, while there was a man bound hand and foot as a prisoner. Mu'adh said: Who is this? Abu Musa said: He was a Jew. He embraced Islam. Then he reverted to his false religion and became a Jew. Mu'adh said: I won't sit until he is killed according to the decree of Allah and His Apostle (may peace be upon him) (in this case). Abu Musa said: Be seated. It will be done. He said: I won't sit unless he is killed in accordance with the decree of Allah and His Apostle (may peace be upon him). He repeated these words thrice. Then Abu Musa ordered him (to be killed) and he was kilied. Then the two talked of standing in prayer at night. One of them, i. e. Mu'adh, said: I sleep (for a part of the night) and stand in prayer (for a part) and I hope that I shall get the same reward for steeping as I shall get for standing (in prayer).


Chapter 4: UNDESIRABILITY OF GETTING A POSITION OF AUTHORITY WITHOUT NECESSITY
Book 020, Number 4491:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr who said: I said to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him): Messenger of Allah, will you not appoint me to a public office? He stroked my shoulder with his hand and said: Abu Dharr, thou art weak and authority is a trust. and on the Day of judgment it is a cause of humiliation and repentance except for one who fulfils its obligations and (properly) discharges the duties attendant thereon.

Book 020, Number 4492:

It has been reported on the authority of Abu Dharr that the Messenger of of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Abu Dharr, I find that thou art weak and I like for thee what I like for myself. Do not rule over (even) two persons and do not manage the property of an orphan.


Chapter 5: THE MERITS OF A JUST RULER AND THE DEMERITS OF A TYRANT RULER
Book 020, Number 4493:

It has been narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah b. 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Behold! the Dispensers of justice will be seated on the pulpits of light beside God, on the right side of the Merciful, Exalted and GlorioUS. Either side of the Being is the right side both being equally mrneritorious. (The Dispensers of justice are) those who do justice in their rules, in matters relating to their families and in all that they undertake to do.

Book 020, Number 4494:

It has been reported on the authority of Abd al-Rahman b. Shumasa who said: I came to A'isha to inquire something from her. She said: From which people art thou? I said: I am from the people of Egypt. She said: What was the behaviour of your governor towards you in this war of yours? I said: We did not experience anything bad from him. If the camel of a man from us died, he would bestow on him a camel. If any one of us lost his slave, he would give him a slave. If anybody was in need of the basic necessities of life, he would provide them with provisions. She said: Behold! the treatment that was meted out to my brother, Muhammad b. Abu Bakr, does not prevent me from telling you what I heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said in this house of mine: O God, who (happens to) acquire some kind of control over the affairs of my people and is hard upon them-be Thou hard upon him, and who (happens to) acquire some kind of control over the affairs of my people and is kind to them-be Thou kind to him.

Book 020, Number 4495:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abd al-Rahman b. Shumasa with another chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4496:

It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn 'Umar that the Holy Prophet (May be upon him) said: Beware. every one of you is a shepherd and every one is answerable with regard to his flock. The Caliph is a shepherd over the people and shall be questioned about his subjects (as to how he conducted their affairs). A man is a guardian over the members of his family and shal be questioned about them (as to how he looked after their physical and moral well-being). A woman is a guardian over the household of her husband and his children and shall be questioned about them (as to how she managed the household and brought up the children). A slave is a guardian over the property of his master and shall be questioned about it (as to how he safeguarded his trust). Beware, every one of you is a guardian and every one of you shall be questioned with regard to his trust.

Book 020, Number 4497:

This tradition has been narrated through more; than one chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4498:

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn 'Umar, but there is (a slight change of wording) in the hadith transmitted through Zuhri that he said:" I think that he (the narrator) said: The man is a custodian of the wealth of his father, and he would be answerable for what is in his custody."

Book 020, Number 4499:

A hadith having the same meaning has been transmitted on the authority of 'Abdullah b. 'Umar.

Book 020, Number 4500:

It has been narrated on the authority of Hasan who said: Ubaidullah b Ziyad visited Ma'qil b. Yasir al-Muzani in his last iliness. Ma'qil said (to him): I am narrating to you a tradition I heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). If I knew that I am to survive this illness. I would, not narrate it to you. I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: If God appointed anyone ruler over a people and he died while he was still treacherous to his people, God would forbid his entry into Paradige.

Book 020, Number 4501:

It has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of Hasan who said: Ibn, Ziyad paid a visit to Ma'qil b. Yasir who was seriously ill. Here follows the same tradition as has gone before with the addition that Ibn Ziyad asked: Why didn't you narrate this tradition to me before this day? Ma'qil reprimanded him and said: I did not narrate it to you or I was not going to narrate it to you.

Book 020, Number 4502:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Malik that Ubaidullah b. Ziyad visited Ma'qil b. Yaser in the latter's illness. Ma'qil said to him: I am narrating to you a tradition. If I were not at death's door, I would not narrate it to you. I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) say: A ruler who, having obtained control over the affairs of the Muslims, does not strive for their betterment and does not serve them sincerely shall not enter Paradise with them.

Book 020, Number 4503:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu al-Aswad who said: My father related to me that Ma'qil b. Yasir fell ill. 'Ubaidullah b. Ziyad called on him to inquire after his health. Here follows the tradition as narrated by Hasan from Ma'qil.

Book 020, Number 4504:

It has been narrated on the authority of Hasan that A'idh b. 'Amr who was one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) called on 'Ubaidullah b. Ziyad and said (to him): O my son, I have heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: The worst of guardians is the cruel ruler. Beware of being one of them. Ubaidullah said (to him out of arrogance): Sit you down. You are from the chaff of the Companions of Muhammad (may peace be upon him). A'idh said: Was there worthless chaff among them? Such worthless chaff appeared after them and among other people.


Chapter 6: MISAPPROPRIATION OF BOOTY IS A SERIOUS OFFENCE
Book 020, Number 4505:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said: One day the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood among us (to deliver a sermon). He talked about the misappropriation of booty, and declared it to be a serious matter and a grave sin. Then he said: I shouldn't find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a growling camel mounted on his neck, and should appeal to me for help saying:" Messenger of Allah, help me." and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I already communicated to you. I shouldn't find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a bleating ewe mounted on his neck, and he should say to me:" Messenger of Allah, help me," and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you. I shouldn't find that one of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a Person crying loudly mounted on his neck, and he should say to me:" Messenger of Allah, help me," and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you. I shouldn't find that any one of you should come on the Day of Judgment with fluttering clothes wrapped round his neck and he should say to me:" Messenger of Allah, help me," and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you. I shouldn't find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a heap of gold and silver placed on his neck and he should say to me:" Messenger of Allah, help me." and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I already conveyed to you (the warning from the Almighty).

Book 020, Number 4506:

The above tradition has been narrated on the same authority through different chains of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4507:

Abu Huraira has narrated this hadith with a slight variation of words.

Book 020, Number 4508:

Abu Huraira has narrated this hadith similar to the above mentioned hadith.


Chapter 7: ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS ON THE PART OF STATE OFFICERS IS FORBIDDEN
Book 020, Number 4509:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa'idi who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed a man from the Asad tribe who was called Ibn Lutbiyya in charge of Sadaqa (i. e. authorised hign to receive Sadaqa from the people on behalf of the State. When he returned (with the collictions), he said: This is for you and (this is mine as) it was presented to me as a gift. The narrator said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upod him) stood on the pulpit and praised God and extolled Him. Then he said: What about a State official whom I give an assignment and who (comes and) says: This is for you and this has been presented to me as a gift? Why didn't he remain in the house of his father or the house of his mother so that he could observe whether gifts were presented to him or not. By the Being in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, any one of you will not take anything from it but will bring it on the Day of Judgment, carrying on his neck a camel that will be growling, or a cow that will be bellowing or an ewe that will be bleating. Then he raised his hands so that we could see the whiteness of his armpits. Then he said twice: O God, I have conveyed (Thy Commandments).

Book 020, Number 4510:

It has been reported on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa'idi who said: The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) appointed Ibn Lutbiyya, a man from the Azd tribe, in charge of Sadaqa (authorising him to receive gifts from the people on behalf of the State). He came with the collectio, gave it to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). and said: This wealth is for you and this is a gift presented to me. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said to him: Why didn't you remain in the house of your father and your mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not. Then he stood up to deliver a sermon. Here follows the tradition like the tradition of Sufyan.

Book 020, Number 4511:

It has been reported on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa'idi who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed a man from the Azd tribe. called Ibn al-, Utbiyya, in charge of Sadaqat to be received from Banu Sulaim. When he came (back), the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked him to render his account. He said: This wealth is for you (i. e. for the public treasury) and this is a gift (presented to me). The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: You should have remained in the house of your father and your mother, until your gift came to you if you spoke the truth; then he addressed us. He praised God and extolled Him, and afterwards said: I appoint a man from you to a responsible post sharing with the authority that God has entrusted to me, and he comes to me saying: This wealth is for you (i. e. for the public treasury) and this is a gift presented to me. Why did he not remain in the house of his father and his mother and his gift came to him, if he was truthful? By God, any one of you will not take anything from (the public funds) without any justification, but will meet his Lord carrying it on himself on the Day of judgment. I will recognise any one of you meeting Allah and carrying a growling camel, or a cow bellowing or a goat bleating. Then he raised his hands so high that whiteness of his armpits could be seen. Then he said: O my Lord, I have conveyed (Thy Commandments). The narrator says: My eyes saw (the Holy Prophet standing in that pose) and my ears heard (what he said).

Book 020, Number 4512:

This tradition has been hanoed down through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of Hisham with aslight variation in the wording.

Book 020, Number 4513:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa'idi that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed a man in charge of Sadaqa (authorising him to receive charity from the people on behalf of the State). He came (back to the Holy prophet) with a large number of things and started saying: This is for you and this has been presented to me as a gift. Here follows the tradition that has gone before except that 'Urwa (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) asked Abu Humaid: Did you hear it from the Messenger of Allah (himself) (may peace be upon him)? He replied: My ears heard it from his mouth.

Book 020, Number 4514:

It has been reported on the authority of 'Adi b. 'Amira al-Kindi who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Whoso from you is appointed by us to a position of authority and he conceals from us a needle or something smaller than that, it would be misappropriation (of public funds) and will (have to) produce it on the Day of Judgment. The narrator says: A dark-complexioned man from the Ansar stood up-I can visualise him still-and said: Messenger of Allah, take back from me your assignment. He said: What has happened to you? The man said: I have heard you say so and so. He said: I say that (even) now: Whoso from you is appointed by as to a position of authority, he should bring everything, big of small, and whatever he is given therefrom he should take, and he should restrain himself from taking that which is forbidden.

Book 020, Number 4515:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Isma'il with the same chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4516:

Adi b. 'Amira al-Kindi heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying (as) was narrated in the (above-mentioned) hadith.


Chapter 8: OBEDIENCE TO THE RULER IS FORBIDDEN IN MATTERS SINFUL, BUT IS OTHERWISE OBLIGATORY
Book 020, Number 4517:

It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Juraij that the Qur'anic injunction:" 0 you who believe, obey Allah, His Apostle and those in authority from amongst You" (iv. 59) -was revealed in respect of 'Abdullah b. Hudhafa b. Qais b. Adi al-Sahmi who was despatched by the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) as leader of a military campaign. The narrator said: He was informed of this fact by Ya'la b. Muslim who was informed by Sa'id b. Jubair who in turn was informed by Ibn Abbas.

Book 020, Number 4518:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Holy prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Whoso obeys me obeys God, and whoso disobeys me disobeys God. Whoso obeys the commander (appointed by me) obeys me, and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me. The same tradition transmitted by different persons omits the portion: And whose disobeys the commander disobeys me.

Book 020, Number 4519:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Whoso obeys me obeys God; and whose disobeys me disobeys God. Whoso obeys my commander obeys me, and whoso disobeys my commander disobeys me.

Book 020, Number 4520:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4521:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira by more than one chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4522:

Hammam b. Munabbih has transmitted this hadith on the authority of Abu Huraira.

Book 020, Number 4523:

According to one version of the tradition, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Whoso obeys the commander. He did not say:" My commander."

Book 020, Number 4524:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: It is obligatory for you to listen to the ruler and obey him in adversity and prosperity, in pleasure and displeasure, and even when another person is given (rather undue) preference over you.

Book 020, Number 4525:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr who said: My friend (i. e. the Holy Prophet) advised me to listen (to the man in position of authority) and obey (him) even if he were a slave maimed (and disabled).

Book 020, Number 4526:

In another version of the tradition, we have the wording:" An Abyssinian slave maimed and disabled."

Book 020, Number 4527:

Abu 'Imran narrated this hadith with a slight change of wording.

Book 020, Number 4528:

It has been narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Husain who learnt the tradition from his grandmother. She said that she heard the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) delivering his sermon on the occasion of the Last Pilgrimage. He was saying: If a slave is appointed over you and he conducts your affairs according to the Book of Allah, you should listen to him and obeey (his orders).

Book 020, Number 4529:

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Shu'ba with the same chain of transmitters, and he said:" a negro slave".

Book 020, Number 4530:

In other versions of the above tradition, the wordings are" an Abyssinian slave." and" a maimed Abyssinian slave".

Book 020, Number 4531:

Another version of the tradition does not qualify the slave with the epithets" maimed,"" an Abyssinian" but makes the addition:" I have heard the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) (say this) at Mina or 'Arafat."

Book 020, Number 4532:

It has been narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Husain who learnt the tradition from his grandmother. Umm Husain. He said': I heard her say: I performed Hajjat-ul-Wada' in the company of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said a lot of things (on this occasion). Then I heard him say: If a maimed slave is appointed a commander over you the narrator says: I think she said:" a black stave" who leads you according to the Book of Allah, then listen to him and obey him.

Book 020, Number 4533:

It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn 'Umar that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen (to the ruler appointed over him) and obey him whether he likes it or not, except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing. If he is ordered to do a sinful act, a Muslim should neither. listen to him nor should he obey his orders.

Book 020, Number 4534:

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of 'Ubaidullah.

Book 020, Number 4535:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu 'Abd al-Rahman from 'Ali that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent a force (on a mission) and appointed over them a man. He kindled a fire and said: Enter it. Some people made up their minds to enter it (the fire), (carrying out the order of their commander), but the others said: We fled from the fire (that's why we have come into the fold of Islam). The matter was reported to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said to those who Contemplated entering (the fire at the order of their commander): If you had entered it, you would have remained there until the Day of Judgment. He commanded the act of the latter group and said: There is no submission in matters involving God's disobedience or displeasure. Submission is obligatory only in what is good (and reasonable).

Book 020, Number 4536:

It has been narrated on the authority of 'All who said: The Mersenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent an expeditionand appointed over the Mujahids a man from the Ansar. (While making the appointment), he ordered that his work should be listened to and obeyed. They made him angry in a matter. He said: Collect for me dry wood. They collected it for him. Then he said: Kindle a fire. They kindled (the fire). Then he said: Didn't the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) order you to listen to me and obey (my orders)? They said: Yes. He said: Enter the fire. The narrator says: (At this), they began to look at one another and said: We fled from the fire to (find refuge with) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) (and now you order us to enter it). They stood quiet until his anger cooled down and the fire went out. When they returned, they related the incident to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: If they had entered it, they would not have come out. Obedience (to the commander) is obligatory only in what is good.

Book 020, Number 4537:

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of A'mash.

Book 020, Number 4538:

It has been narrated on the authority of" Ubida who learnt the tradition from his father who, in turn, learnt it from his own father. 'Ubada's grandfather said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) took an oath of allegiance from us on our listening to and obeying the orders of our commander in adversity and prosperity, in pleasure and displeasure (and even) when somebody is given preference over us, on our avoiding to dispute the delegation of powers to a person deemed to be a fit recipient thereof (in the eye of one who delegates it) and on our telling the truth in whatever position we be without fearing in the matter ef Allah the reproach of the reproacher.

Book 020, Number 4539:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of 'Ubada b. Walid with the same chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4540:

The same tradition has been handed down through more than one chain of transmitters.

Book 020, Number 4541:

It has been narrated on the authority of Junida b. Abu Umayya who said: We called upon 'Ubada b. Samit who was ill and said to him: May God give you health I Narrate to us a tradition which God may prove beneficial (to us) and which you have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) called us and we took the oath of allegiance to him. Among the injunctions he made binding upon us was: Listening and obedience (to the Amir) in our pleasure and displeasure, in our adversity and prosperity, even when somebody is given preference over us, and without disputing the delegation of powers to a man duly invested with them (Obedience shall be accorded to him in all circumstances) except when you have clear signs of his disbelief in (or disobedience to) God-signs that could be used as a conscientious justification (for non-compliance with his orders).


Chapter 9: WHEN A RULER ENJOINS GOD-CONSCIOUSNESS AND DOES JUSTICE, HE WILL HAVE A (GREAT) REWARD
Book 020, Number 4542:

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A commander (of the Muslims) is a shield for them. They fight behind him and they are protected by (him from tyrants and aggressors). If he enjoins fear of God, the Exalted and Glorious, and dispenses justice, there will be a (great) reward for him; and if he enjoins otherwise, it redounds on him.


Chapter 10: FULFILMENT OF THE COVENANT MADE WITH THE CALIPHS IS IMPERATIVE. THE CALIPH TO WHOM ALLEGIANCE IS SWORN IN THE FIRST INSTANCE HAS AN ESTABLISHED SUPREMACY OVER THOSE WHO ASSUME POWERS LATER
Book 020, Number 4543:

It has been narrated by Abu Huraira that the Holy Prophet (may pceace be upon him) said: Banu Isra'il were ruled over by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him; but after me there is no prophet and there will be caliphs and they will be quite large in number. His Companions said: What do you order us to do (in case we come to have more than one Caliph)? He said: The one to whom allegiance is sworn first has a supremacy over the others. Concede to them their due rights (i. e. obey them). God (Himself) will question them about the subjects whom He had entrusted to them.

Book 020, Number 454
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