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 Men Around The Prophet

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PostSubject: Men Around The Prophet   Sat Jul 09, 2011 1:03 am

Men Around The Prophet

(sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam)

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) started calling people to Islam as soon as he was commanded by Allaah to do so. Only few people in Makkah embraced Islam. Gradually, the number of people increased. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) used to meet them in the house of Al-Arqam Ibn Abu Al-Arqam, may Allaah be pleased with him, to help them memorize the Quran, teach them their religious matters and prepare them to spread the call to Islam. The early Muslims bore all sorts of torture and harm for the sake of holding fast to their religion.

Even the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was exposed to such harm. When the Quraysh tribe increased its persecution on the Muslims,


the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded some of his companions,

may Allaah be pleased with them, to migrate to Ethiopia so they could worship Allaah there in a safe place, fleeing with their religion.

Later on, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) migrated to Madeenah where he found people who supported him (the Ansaar) and who defended Islam and provided shelter to the migrants and even shared their property with them. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) made a bond of brotherhood between the migrants and the Ansaar. When the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) moved to Madeenah, a large number of people embraced Islam. He, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, fought many battles to defend Allaah's Religion against the Quraysh and against the conspiracies and treachery of the Jews. Allaah crowned his efforts with the conquest of Makkah in the eighth Hijri year. Afterwards, the Arab delegations started to visit Madeenah to pledge allegiance and declare their Islam in front of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). During the mission of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) which lasted twenty three years, a number of revered men accompanied him and shouldered the responsibility of spreading Islam everywhere. These companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, – taught by the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) – included caliphs, leaders, commanders, jurists, scholars and scribes of revelation, may Allaah be pleased with them all. In the following, we shall attempt to know more about some of them.

The Rightly-Guided Caliphs

After the death of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), four revered companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, took over the caliphate of the Muslims and shouldered the responsibility of leading the State's affairs and spreading Islam. Their era is called "The Era of the Rightly-Guided Caliphate". They are:


1- Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq (may Allaah be pleased with him):

He was the first man to embrace Islam. He dedicated himself as well as his wealth, to Allaah and His Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam. He used to buy the Muslim slaves tortured by Quraysh such as Bilaal Ibn Rabaah, may Allaah be pleased with him, and free them. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) chose him in order to accompany him during the migration from Makkah to Madeenah. After the migration, he was very close to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) to the extent that he never traveled and left him behind. Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, participated in all the battles fought by the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). After the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, is considered the best Muslim ever. After the death of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, shouldered the responsibilities of the State and became the caliph of the Muslims. From the very first moments of his caliphate, he encountered the problem of apostasy of many Arab tribes who did not have deep faith and some of them refused to pay Zakaah (almsgiving). Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, may Allaah be pleased with him, took a firm decision towards the apostasy movement and he mobilized the armies that succeeded in putting an end to it, and restored security to the Arabian Peninsula. Then, he started to send armies in order to conquer Levant and Iraq and his armies achieved breathtaking victories over the Persians and the Romans. During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, the Quran was compiled into one manuscript. He assigned the revered companion Zayd Ibn Thaabit, may Allaah be pleased with him, to do this important task. Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, may Allaah be pleased with him, died in 13 A.H. after he spent two years and three months as a caliph.

2- 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him):

He embraced Islam in the fifth year of prophethood when he was twenty seven years old. He was known for his strong personality, unmitigated will, and people used to be afraid of him. Ever since he embraced Islam, he was second to Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, may Allaah be pleased with him, as far as his rank in the heart of the Muslims is concerned. Before he embraced Islam, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) invoked Allaah to support His Religion with 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him. He was always in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and he participated in all the battles which the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) fought. Owing to his love of the truth and will to establish justice, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said about him: "Allaah made the truth in `Umar's, may Allaah be pleased with him, tongue and heart." [At-Tirmithi]. After the death of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with them, became caliph and he bore the title of the 'Leader of the Believers. He resumed the Islamic conquests which Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, had started and he conquered Iraq, Levant [Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Syria] and Egypt. During his caliphate, the Muslim state extended and Islam spread in all the areas the Muslims conquered. Besides, everyone lived in justice and security during his caliphate. He was also the first Muslim ruler to form bodies just like we have nowadays; ministries such as the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Finance. He died in 23 A.H. after the Magian, Abu Lu'lu'ah Al-Majoosi, stabbed him while he was performing Fajr Prayer in the Prophet's Mosque.

3- `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan (may allaah be pleased with him).

He embraced Islam in its early phase and he married the two daughters of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) Ruqyah and Umm Kolthoom, may Allaah be pleased with them. That is why he was called "the owner of the two lights". Ever since he embraced Islam, he dedicated himself and his property to Jihaad with the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). He migrated both to Ethiopia and Madeenah. He spent most of his money in the cause of Allaah and in order to support the Islamic call. He was the richest man in the Quraysh tribe. He bought the well of Rumah at an amount of twelve thousand Dirhams and dedicated it to the Muslims in Madeenah because they were suffering from the scarcity of water and its expensive price. He also spent his money in preparing one third of the Army of Distress for the Battle of Tabook. The army comprised thirty thousand soldiers. 'Uthmaan Ibn 'Affaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, participated in all the battles fought by the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) except the Battle of Badr, in adherence to the Prophet's command. He became caliph after the martyrdom of 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, may Allaah be pleased with him, in 23 A.H. During his caliphate, the Muslims completed the conquest of Persia and North Africa. The Muslims also built the first Islamic fleet and managed to defeat the Romans in the Battle of Thaat As-Sawaari in 34 A.H. One of the best deeds of `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, is that he re-compiled the Quran into one single copy and he sent some copies of it to the various Islamic regions to use it accordingly. This copy of the Quran was known as the 'Uthmanic Copy and it is the copy to which Muslims adhere until the present day. Caliph 'Uthmaan Ibn 'Affaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, was martyred in 35 A.H. when a number of rebels assaulted his house and killed him while he was reciting the Quran.

4- 'Ali Ibn Abu Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him)

He embraced Islam when he was young and he was brought up in the Prophet's, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, house. Ever since he was young, he was known to be chivalrous and a brave knight. He participated in the Battles of Badr and Uhud with the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). In the Battle of the Trench, he fought the best horseman and fighter of Quraysh, 'Amru Ibn 'Abbood and stabbed him causing his death. In the Battle of Khaybar, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) gave him the flag. 'Ali Ibn Abu Taalib, may Allaah be pleased with him, was one of the companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, who memorized all the Quran and recited it before the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). He was also one of the most knowledgeable companions about the Quran, its interpretation and the reasons of revelation. He was also one of the scribes of revelation. He married Faathimah, may Allaah be pleased with her, the daughter of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and she gave birth to Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn, may Allaah be pleased with him, who were the means for the continuity of the progeny of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). 'Ali Ibn Abu Taalib, may Allaah be pleased with him, was highly trusted by the previous Rightly-Guided Caliphs and he was one of their closest supporters. He became caliph after the martyrdom of `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan, may Allaah be pleased with him. After the martyrdom of 'Uthmaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, the Muslims were very much afflicted. One of the Kharijites, 'Abdur-Rahman Ibn Muljam, succeeded in assassinating 'Ali Ibn Abu Taalib, may Allaah be pleased with him, while he was performing Fajr Prayer in Al-Kufah Mosque, in Ramadhaan 40 A.H.

The Commander and Conqueror Companions (may Allaah be pleased with them):


1- Khaalid Ibn Al-Waleed (may Allaah be pleased with him):

He was one of the greatest Muslim commanders ever known. He embraced Islam late in the seventh Hijri year along with 'Amr Ibn Al-'Aas, and `Uthmaan Ibn Talhah, may Allaah be pleased with them, in the same day. Ever since he embraced Islam, he fought in the cause of Allaah with strong faith. The first battle he fought as a soldier in the Muslim army was the Battle of Mu'tah in the eighth Hijri year. Due to his outstanding military skills, he managed to save the Muslim army which was fighting the Romans who previously excelled the Muslims in troops and weaponry. After this battle, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) called him the Sword of Allaah. After the death of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq made him commander of the largest army devoted to fight the apostates. He achieved great victories and managed to put an end to Musaylamah, the liar, in one of the most ferocious apostasy battles known as the Battle of Yamaamah. Later on, Khaalid Ibn Al-Waleed, may Allaah be pleased with him, led the most critical battles in the Islamic conquest on the Persian front as well as that of Levant. He achieved one of his greatest victories over the Romans in the Battle of Yarmook in 13 A.H. He died in 21 A.H. at Hums during the caliphate of `Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him.

2- S'ad Ibn Abu Waqqaas (may Allaah be pleased with him):

He was one of the ten people who were given the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise, along with the four Rightly-Guided Caliphs: Abu 'Ubaydah Ibn Al-Jarraah, 'Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn 'Awf, Talhah Ibn `Ubaydullaah, Az-Zubayr Ibn Al-'Awwaam and Sa`eed Ibn Zayd, may Allaah be pleased with them all. He embraced Islam in its early phase when he was seventeen years old. He was the first companion to shed a disbeliever's blood in the cause of Allaah. He was also the first companion to shoot an arrow in the path of Allaah. He participated with the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) in the battles of Badr, Uhud, the Trench and other battles. In the Battle of Uhud, he was one of the best warriors in the Muslim army. He narrated the story of the first blood he shed in the path of Allaah saying: "The companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) in Makkah used to go away from the Qurayshi people in order to perform prayer. While they were praying, some polytheists saw them and mocked the Muslims' religion and prayer. They were engaged in a quarrel, so I beat a polytheist with a large bone which shed his blood. This was the first blood I shed in the cause of Allaah." During the second caliphate, `Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him, appointed him as a commander of the armies fighting Persia. He achieved a great victory in the Battle of Qaadisiyyah which lasted four days. In this battle, the Persian commander Rustum was killed and his army was dispersed. The Muslim armies saved Iraq from Persian control that had lasted for several centuries and restored it to the Muslim Arabs. After this victory, S`ad Ibn Abi Waqqaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, managed to conquer Ctesiphon, the Persian capital, and with this, the Persian Empire came to an end and collapsed. S'ad Ibn Abu Waqqaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, died in Madeenah in 55 A.H.

The Jurists

and Scholars




'Abdullaah Ibn Mas`ood (may Allaah be pleased with him):




He embraced Islam early, as he was the sixth person to enter Islam. He was also the first Muslim to publicly recite the Quran in Makkah and when he did so, the Quraysh people beat him and slapped his face. He was famous for his vast knowledge of the Quran. He also mastered reciting it to an extent that Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said: "Whoever likes to recite the Quran as pleasant as it was revealed should follow the recitation of Ibn Umm `Abd (i.e. Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood). [Ibn Majah]. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, loved to hear the Quran from 'Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood, may Allaah be pleased with him. "So, the latter told him: "How can I recite it to you while it was revealed on you?" He replied, "I like to hear it from others." 'Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood, may Allaah be pleased with him, reached such a degree in knowledge of the Quran and its interpretation that he said: "No verse was revealed in the Quran unless I know when and where it was revealed and the occasion of its revelation." 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him, used to like him and consult him in many affairs. When `Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, sent him to Koofah to be in charge of the Muslims' Treasury House, he said: "I swear by Allaah that I have preferred you (the people of Koofah) to my own self (by sending Ibn Mas'ood), so learn from him." Ibn Mas'ood migrated both to Ethiopia and Madeenah. He participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, the Trench, the Pledge of Allegiance at Al-Hudaybiyyah as well as all the battles the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, fought. After the death of the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, he participated in the Battle of Yarmook. It was he who ended the life of Abu Jahl in the Battle of Badr. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, gave him glad tidings that he will enter Paradise. Ibn Mas'ood, may Allaah be pleased with him, died in Madeenah in 32 A.H.

3-Zayd Ibn Thaabit (may Allaah be pleased with him).




He was eleven years old when the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, migrated from Makkah to Madeenah. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, noticed his outstanding intelligence and asked him to learn the Syriac language which was used by the Jews in Madeenah in their writings. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said to him: "I do not trust them." Zayd Ibn Thaabit, may Allaah be pleased with him, learnt it in a short period of time that did not exceed a month. He wanted to participate in the Battles of Badr and Uhud but the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, refused because of his tender age. The first battle in which he fought was the Battle of the Trench. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam used to command him to write down the Quran. Whenever a verse or so was revealed to the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, he would send a message to Zayd Ibn Thaabit, may Allaah be pleased with him, to come and write it down. In spite of his young age, he was one of the jurists. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said about him: "He is the most knowledgeable person in the rulings of inheritance." [Ahmad]. Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq commanded Zayd Ibn Thaabit, , may Allaah be pleased with them, during his Caliphate to compile the Quran into one manuscript, and said to him: "You are a wise young man and we do not suspect you (of telling lies or being forgetful): and you used to write down the Divine Inspiration for Allaah's Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam. Therefore, collect the Quran into one manuscript." Zayd performed this task in an excellent way and he succeeded in compiling the Quran into one manuscript. 'Umar and 'Uthmaan, may Allaah be pleased with them, would consult Zayd Ibn Thaabit, may Allaah be pleased with him, about inheritance, legal opinions, recitation of the Quran and issuing legal judgments [Fataawa] and they never consulted any other person before him in these issues. Zayd Ibn Thaabit, may Allaah be pleased with him, died in 45 A.H.

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