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 The Prophet's Ambassadors

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PostSubject: The Prophet's Ambassadors   Sat Jul 09, 2011 1:11 am

The Prophet's Ambassadors

The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, was waiting for the right time to spread the Islamic call in the vast universe rather than limiting it to the Arabian Peninsula. The opportunity for this surfaced after the Hudybiyyah treaty which the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, concluded with Quraysh. This treaty allowed the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, to secure himself from the Quraysh who had been his fiercest enemies, after he, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, has eliminated the danger of the Jews except for the Jews of Khaybar.

At the beginning of the seventh Hijri year, the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, took the first steps to spread his call to the largest number of kings and rulers around the world. He selected a number of noble companions to be his ambassadors to these kings and rulers. For this noble task, the Prophet ,


sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, chose people who had deep knowledge, outstanding intelligence, a good reputation, good looks, and eloquent speakers so that their speech would be influential and they would have the ability to convey his message in the best possible way.

The ambassadors of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, were as follows:

• `Abdullaah Ibn Huthaafah As-Sahmi, may Allaah be pleased with him, who was sent to Chosroes, King of Persia

• Dihyah Ibn Khaleefah Al-Kalbi, may Allaah be pleased with him, who was sent to Heraclius, the Roman Emperor

• Haatib Ibn Abi Balta`ah, may Allaah be pleased with him, who was sent to Al-Muqawqas, the ruler of Egypt

• `Amr Ibn Umayyah Adh-Dhamri, may Allaah be pleased with him, who was sent to Negus, the King of Abyssinia

• Al-`Alaa' Ibn Al-Hadhrami, may Allaah be pleased with him, who was sent to the prince of Bahrain

• `Amr Ibn Al-`Aas, may Allaah be pleased with him, who was sent to the two rulers of Oman

The message of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, to Caesar:

“In the name of Allaah, the most Merciful, the Even Merciful: (This letter is) from Muhammad, the slave of Allaah, and His Messenger, to Caesar, the Ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon the followers of guidance. To proceed, I invite you to Islam (i.e. surrender to Allaah); embrace Islam and you will be safe; embrace Islam and Allaah will bestow on you a double reward. But if you reject this invitation to Islam, you shall be responsible for misguiding the masses (i.e. your nation).”

Allaah says (what means): "Say (O Muhammad): "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allaah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allaah. Then, if they turn away, say: "Bear witness that we are Muslims."

[Quran: 3:64]

Caesar sent a polite reply to the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, and even had inclinations to embrace Islam, however, his top statesmen did not agree with him. So, he finally apologized to the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, that he would not embrace Islam.

The ambassadors of the Prophet , sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam,

1. Dihyah Al-Kalbi :

He was the noble companion Dihyah Ibn Khaleefah Al-Kalbi, may Allaah be pleased with him, who belonged to the Ansaar. He participated with the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, in the Battle of Uhud and, all the battles after that.

In addition to his wisdom, Dihyah Al-Kalbi, may Allaah be pleased with him, was a handsome man and Jibreel (Gabriel) used to come to the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, in his image.

Dihyah Al-Kalbi, may Allaah be pleased with him, was the ambassador of the Prophet , sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, to Heraclius. Al-Bukhaari, may Allaah have mercy upon him, reported that Abu Sufyaan was present when the message of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, reached Heraclius. When Heraclius finished reading the message, people's voices raised in rejection. When Abu Sufyaan left the meeting, he said to his companions: “Muhammad has become so prominent that even the king of the Romans is afraid of him!”

2. `Abdullaah Ibn Huthaafah As-Sahmi:

He, may Allaah be pleased with him, was one of the greatest companions of the Prophet, sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam. He embraced Islam in its early phase and migrated to Abyssinia after the polytheists had increased their torture on the Muslims in Makkah. He participated, with the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, in the Battle of Uhud and, all the battles after that. He was known for his sense of humor.

The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, sent him with a message to Chosroes, the king of Persia. The message read as follows: “From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allaah to Chosroes, the king of Persia. Peace be upon he who follows true guidance and believes in Allaah and His Messenger. I invite you to accept the religion of Allaah. I am the Messenger of Allaah sent to all people in order that I may warn every living person, and that evidence may be established against those who reject the Truth. Accept Islam as your religion so that you may live in security, otherwise, you will be responsible for all the sins of the Magians”

When the above message was read, Chosroes tore the letter into shreds. When the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, came to know about that, he invoked: “O Allaah, tear away his kingdom.”

`Abdullaah Ibn Huthaafah, may Allaah be pleased with him, died during the caliphate of `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan, may Allaah be pleased with him.

3. Haatib Ibn Abi Balta`ah:

He, may Allaah be pleased with him was one of the early Muslims. He migrated to Al-Madeenah and participated with the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, in the Battle of Badr and all the battles after that.

The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, sent him with a message to Al-Muqawqas, the king of Egypt. The message read: “From Muhammad the slave of Allaah and His Messenger to Al- Muqawqas, the vicegerent of Egypt. Peace be upon he who follows true guidance. I invite you to accept Islam. Therefore, if you want security, accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allaah, the Sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you will bear the sins of all the Copts.”

Al-Muqawqas gave a hearty welcome to Haatib Ibn Abi Balta`ah, the ambassador of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam. He admired Haatib's mentality and his convincing speech, and said to him: "You are a wise man and the ambassador of a wise man."

He called a scribe to write the following reply in Arabic: “From Al-Muqawqas, the vicegerent of Egypt to Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdullaah: I have read your letter and understood its contents and what you are calling for. I already know that the coming of a Prophet is still due, but I used to believe that he would be born in the Levant. I heartily received your messenger. I am sending you as presents two maids, who belong to noble Coptic families; clothing, and a steed for riding on. Peace be upon you”.

The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, married Maariyah, the first maid, and she gave birth to his son Ibraaheem who died while still a baby.

Haatib Ibn Abi Balta`ah, may Allaah be pleased with him, died in 30 A.H. during the caliphate of `Uthmaan Ibn `Affaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, when he was sixty-five years old.

4. `Amr Ibn Umayyah Adh-Dhamri:

He, may Allaah be pleased with him, was one of the early Muslims who migrated to Abyssinia after the polytheists increased their torture on the Muslims in Makkah. Later, he migrated to Al-Madeenah and participated with the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, in some of his battles.

`Amr, may Allaah be pleased with him, was a wise, broad-minded man. The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, used to assign him on missions that required intelligence and excellent abilities. `Amr, may Allaah be pleased with him, used to perform the assigned task in the best manner.

The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, sent him with a message to Negus. Here is an extract from this message: “I call you to Allaah Alone with no associate and to His obedience and to follow me and to believe in that which came to me, for I am the Messenger of Allaah. I invite you and your people to Allaah, the Glorious, the All-Mighty. I hereby bear witness that I have conveyed my message and advice. I invite you to listen and accept my advice.”

`Amr Ibn Umayyah, may Allaah be pleased with him, died almost at the end of the reign of Mu`aawyah Ibn Abi Sufyaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, and he was buried in Al-Madeenah.

5. `Amr Ibn Al-`Aas:

He, may Allaah be pleased with him, was one of the Muslim conquerors and commanders. He embraced Islam in Safar 8 A.H. before the conquest of Makkah. `Amr Ibn Al-`Aas, Khaalid Ibn Al-Waleed, and `Uthmaan Ibn Talhah, may Allaah be pleased with them, came to the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, and declared their Islam.

Owing to his efficiency, the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, charged him to command a brigade of three hundred noble Companions including, Abu Bakr and `Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab. The battle was known as the battle of Thaat As-Salaasil.

The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, used to hold `Amr Ibn Al-`Aas, may Allaah be pleased with him, in high esteem to the extent that he said: “People embrace Islam while `Amr Ibn Al-`Aas has (firm) belief.” [At-Tirmithi] Furthermore, The Prophet also described him as one of the pious men of Quraysh.

The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, sent him with a message to the two kings of Oman: Jayfar and `Abd, sons of Al-Jalandi, inviting them to embrace Islam. They accepted the call of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, and embraced Islam.

After the death of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, `Amr participated in the Islamic conquests of the Levant and he was appointed ruler of Palestine during the caliphate of `Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him.

`Umar sent him to Egypt and `Amr, may Allaah be pleased with him, conquered it and it became a Muslim state. He was the ruler of Egypt till the death of `Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him.

He, may Allaah be pleased with him, was appointed ruler of Egypt again during the reign of Mu`aawyah Ibn Abi Sufyaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, until he died the night before `Eed Al-Fitr in 43 A.H.

6. Al-`Alaa' Ibn Al-Hadhrami:

Originally from Hadhramawt, he was one of the early Muslims. The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, sent him to the king of Bahrain, Al-Munthir Ibn Saawa, carrying a letter inviting him to embrace Islam. In reply, Al-Munthir Ibn Saawa wrote the following letter: “Allaah’s Messenger! I read your letter which you wrote to the people of Bahrain extending an invitation to Islam. Islam appealed to some of them and they entered the fold of Islam, while others did not find it appealing. In my country, there live Magians and Jews, and therefore kindly instruct me how to treat them.”

The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, wrote the following letter in reply to his: “From Muhammad, Messenger of Allaah to Al-Munthir Ibn Saawa. Peace be on you! I praise Allaah with whom there is no associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Thereafter, I remind you of Allaah, the Mighty, the Glorious. Whoever accepts admonition, does it for his own good. Whoever follows my messengers and acts in accordance with their guidance, he, in fact, accepts my advice. My messengers have highly praised your behavior. You shall continue in your present office. Give the new Muslims the full chance to preach their religion. I accept your recommendation regarding the people of Bahrain, and I pardon the offences of the offenders; therefore, you may also forgive them. Of the people of Bahrain whoever wants to continue in their Jewish or Magian faith, should be made to pay Jizyah (poll-tax).”

Some books on the Prophet's biography reported that some of the people of Bahrain embraced Islam after their king did. Al-`Alaa' Ibn Al-Hadhrami, may Allaah be pleased with him, took charge of Bahrain and he was the ruler until the death of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam. Al-`Alaa' Ibn Al-Hadhrami, may Allaah be pleased with him, was known to have his supplications accepted. Once, he supplicated Allaah in order to cross the sea without ships and Allaah accepted his supplication. Al-`Alaa' Ibn Al-Hadhrami, may Allaah be pleased with him, died in 14 A.H.

References:

1- Saheeh Al-Bukhaari

2- Saheeh Muslim

3- The Ambassadors of the Prophet by Staff General Mahmood Sheet Khattaab

4- The Correct Way in Knowing the Companions by Ibn Hajar

5- The Comprehensive in Knowing the Companions by Ibn `Abdul Barr

6- The Lions of the Jungle by Ibn Al-Atheer

7- Authentication of Oral Evidences by Al-Khuzaa`i

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