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 HARAM MAKKI

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PostSubject: HARAM MAKKI   Mon Jul 11, 2011 6:30 pm


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This article contains Arabic text, written from right to left in a cursive style with some letters joined. Without proper rendering support, you may see unjoined Arabic letters written left-to-right instead of right-to-left or other symbols instead of Arabic script.
For other uses, see Islam (disambiguation).

Islam (Arabic: الإسلام‎ al-’islām, pronounced [ʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)[note 1]) is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God. In addition to referring to the religion itself, the word Islam means 'submission to God',[1] 'peace', 'surrender', and 'way to peace'.[2] An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.

Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable.[3] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets .[4] Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time,[5] but consider the Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God (the Final Testament, following the Old and New Testaments).[6] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking, politics, and welfare, to warfare and the environment.[7][8]

Most Muslims belong to one of two denominations; with 80-90% being Sunni and 10-20% being Shia.[9][10][11] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[12] 25% in South Asia,[12] 20% in the Middle East,[13] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[14] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of Europe. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.41-1.57 billion Muslims, comprising about 21-23% of the world's population,[14][15] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[16][17]
Contents
[hide]

1 Etymology and meaning
2 Articles of faith
2.1 God
2.2 Angels
2.3 Revelations
2.4 Prophets
2.5 Resurrection and judgment
2.6 Predestination
3 Five pillars
3.1 Testimony
3.2 Prayer
3.3 Fasting
3.4 Alms-giving
3.5 Pilgrimage
4 Law and Jurisprudence
4.1 Jurists
4.2 Etiquette and diet
4.3 Family life
4.4 Government
4.5 Military
5 History
5.1 Muhammad (610–632)
5.2 Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
5.3 Golden Age (750–1258)
5.4 Fragmentation and invasions
5.5 New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)
5.6 Modern times (1918–present)
6 Denominations
6.1 Sunni
6.2 Shia
6.3 Sufism
6.4 Minor denominations
7 Demographics
8 Culture
8.1 Architecture
8.2 Art
8.3 Calendar
9 See also
10 References
10.1 Citations
10.2 Footnotes
10.3 Books and journals
10.3.1 Encyclopedias
11 Further reading
12 External links

Etymology and meaning

Islam was not named after a particular person, race or locality, like most major religions.[18] The word islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m, and is derived from the Arabic verb ’áslama, which means "to give up, to desert, to surrender (to God)."[1][19] Another word derived from the same root is salaam (سلام) which means 'Peace'.[20][21] Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by worshipping Him, following His commands, and avoiding polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[22] Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[23] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[24] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of worship (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia).[25][clarification needed]
Articles of faith
Main articles: Aqidah and Iman
God
Main article: God in Islam
Allah means God in Arabic

Islam's fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[26] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (112:1-4) Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism but accept Jesus as a prophet. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being al-rahman, meaning "the compassionate" and al-rahim, meaning "the merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[27]

Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[28] He is viewed as a personal God who states “We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein”[29] and responds whenever a person in need or distress calls Him.[9][30] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, between God and the creation that he brought into being by the sheer command “‘Be’ and it is.”[9][31]

Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims to refer to the one God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[32] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish or "Khodā" in Persian.
Angels
Main article: Islamic view of angels

Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience.[33] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."[34]
Revelations
Main articles: Islamic holy books and Qur'an
See also: History of the Qur'an
The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi

The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[5] The Qur'an (literally, “Reading” or “Recitation”) is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal Word of God and is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.[35][36][37] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl). On many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632.[38] The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph.

The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[39] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[40] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[41]

When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[42]
Prophets
Hadith collections
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[show]Sunni
[show]Shi'a
[show]Ibadi
[show]Mu'tazili
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Main article: Prophets of Islam

Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: نبي‎) as those humans chosen by God to be His messengers. According to the Qur'an [43] the descendants of Abraham and Imran were chosen by God to bring the "Will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the Will of God. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[44] Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an. Six of these collections, compiled in the 3rd century AH (9th century CE), came to be regarded as especially authoritative by the largest group in Islām, the Sunnites. Another large group, the Shīʾah, has its own Ḥadīth contained in four canonical collections.[9]
Resurrection and judgment
Main article: Qiyama

Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Qiyamah (also known as yawm ad-dīn, "Day of Judgment" and as-sā`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[45]

The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, riba, and dishonesty. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to ridwān.[46] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[47]
Predestination
Main article: Predestination in Islam

In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."[48] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[49]
Five pillars
Main article: Five Pillars of Islam

The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.[50]
Testimony
Main article: Shahadah

The Shahadah,[51] which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God." This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[52]
Prayer
Main article: Salah
See also: Mosque
Muslims praying

Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[53]

A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi`).[54] Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.[55]
Fasting
Main article: Sawm
Further information: Sawm of Ramadan

Fasting, called "Sawm" (Arabic: صوم‎), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[56]
Alms-giving
Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah

"Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة‎) is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah).[57]
Hajj.ogg
The Kaaba during Hajj
Pilgrimage
Main article: Hajj

The pilgrimage, called the Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.[58]
Law and Jurisprudence
Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh
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Islamic studies
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The Sharia (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[59]

Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[60] Over the years there have been changing views on Islamic law but many such as Zahiri and Jariri[clarification needed] have since died out.[61][62]

Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[63]
Jurists
Main articles: Ulama, Sheikh, and Imam
Ottoman miniature painters

There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis—who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.[64]
Etiquette and diet
Main articles: Adab (behavior) and Islamic dietary laws

Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu `alaykum" ("peace be unto you"), saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health. Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims are restricted in their diet. Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.[65]
Family life
See also: Women in Islam
Many Muslim women do not show their hair in public.

The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. The father is seen as financially responsible for his family, and is obliged to cater for their well-being. The division of inheritance is specified in the Qur'an, which states that most of it is to pass to the immediate family, while a portion is set aside for the payment of debts and the making of bequests. With some exceptions, the woman's share of inheritance is generally half of that of a man with the same rights of succession.[66] Marriage in Islam is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.[67] A man may have up to four wives if he believes he can treat them equally, while a woman may have only one husband. In most Muslim countries, the process of divorce in Islam is known as talaq, which the husband initiates by pronouncing the word "divorce".[68] Scholars disagree whether Islamic holy texts justify traditional Islamic practices such as veiling and seclusion (purdah). Starting in the 20th century, Muslim social reformers argued against these and other practices such as polygamy in Islam, with varying success. At the same time, many Muslim women have attempted to reconcile tradition with modernity by combining an active life with outward modesty. Certain Islamist groups like the Taliban have sought to continue traditional law as applied to women.[69]
Government
Main articles: Political aspects of Islam, Islamic state, Islam and secularism, and Caliphate

Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the scholars function as both jurists and theologians. In practice, Islamic rulers frequently bypassed the Sharia courts with a parallel system of so-called "Grievance courts" over which they had sole control.[citation needed] As the Muslim world came into contact with Western secular ideals, Muslim societies responded in different ways. Turkey has been governed as a secular state ever since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1923. In contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Khomeini.[70]
Military
Main articles: Jihad and Islamic military jurisprudence

Jihad means "to strive or struggle" (in the way of God) and is considered the "Sixth Pillar of Islam" by a minority of Sunni Muslim authorities.[71] Jihad, in its broadest sense, is classically defined as "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation." Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the devil, and aspects of one's own self (such as sinful desires), different categories of jihad are defined.[72] Jihad, when used without any qualifier, is understood in its military aspect.[73][74] Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.[75] Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.[76]

Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants in the defense or expansion of the Ummah. The ultimate purpose of military jihad is debated, both within the Islamic community and without, with some claiming that it only serves to protect the Ummah, with no aspiration of offensive conflict, whereas others have argued that the goal of Jihad is global conquest. Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against apostates, rebels, highway robbers, violent groups, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims or hamper proselytizing efforts.[77][78] Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare: the external Jihad includes a struggle to make the Islamic societies conform to the Islamic norms of justice.[79]

Under most circumstances and for most Muslims, jihad is a collective duty (fard kifaya): its performance by some individuals exempts the others. Only for those vested with authority, especially the sovereign (imam), does jihad become an individual duty. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.[78] For most Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's[80] occultation in 868 AD.[81]
History
Main articles: Muslim history and Spread of Islam
Muhammad (610–632)
Main article: Muhammad
See also: Early social changes under Islam
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina, Saudi Arabia, is the 2nd most sacred Mosque in Islam.

Muhammad (c. 570 – June 8, 632) was a trader later becoming a religious, political, and military leader. However, Muslims do not view Muhammad as the creator of Islam, but instead regard him as the last messenger of God, through which the Qur'an was revealed. Muslims view Muhammad as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. In Muslim tradition, Muhammad is viewed as the last in a series of prophets.[82] For the last 22 years of his life, beginning at age 40 in 610 CE, Muhammad started receiving revelations that he believed to be from God. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an, was memorized and recorded by his companions.[83] During this time, Muhammad preached to the people of Mecca, imploring them to abandon polytheism. Although some converted to Islam, Muhammad and his followers were persecuted by the leading Meccan authorities. After 12 years of preaching, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad established his political and religious authority. Within years, two battles had been fought against Meccan forces: the Battle of Badr in 624, which was a Muslim victory, and the Battle of Uhud in 625, which ended inconclusively. Conflict with Medinan Jewish clans who opposed the Muslims led to their exile, enslavement, or death, and the Jewish enclave of Khaybar was subdued. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.[84] By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless Conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 (at the age of 62) he united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity.[85]
Rise of the caliphate and civil war (632–750)
Further information: Succession to Muhammad, Muslim conquests, and Battle of Karbala

With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's companion and close friend. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[86]
The Muslim Caliphate, 750 CE

His death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib. These four are known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into Persian and Byzantine territories.[87]

When Umar was assassinated in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. After fighting off opposition in the first civil war (the "First Fitna"), Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. Following this, Mu'awiyah, who was governor of Levant, seized power and began the Umayyad dynasty.[88]

These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the three rulers prior to Ali, and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that Ali was the only rightful successor; they became known as the Shi'a.[89] After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflict over succession broke out again in a civil war known as the "Second Fitna". Afterward, the Umayyad dynasty prevailed for seventy years, and was able to conquer the Maghrib and Al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula, former Visigothic Hispania) and the Narbonnese Gaul) in the west as well as expand Muslim territory into Sindh and the fringes of Central Asia.[90] One of the best preserved architectural examples of Islamic conquest, is the Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia) founded in 670 by the Arab conqueror and Umayyad general Uqba ibn Nafi [91] and considered as the ancestor and model for all the mosques in the western Islamic world [92] · .[93] The muladies (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.[94] While the Muslim-Arab elite engaged in conquest, some devout Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life, emphasizing rather poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Devout Muslim ascetic exemplars such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Sufism.[95]

The Umayyad aristocracy viewed Islam as a religion for Arabs only;[96] the economy of the Umayyad empire was based on the assumption that a majority of non-Muslims (Dhimmis) would pay taxes to the minority of Muslim Arabs. A non-Arab who wanted to convert to Islam was supposed to first become a client of an Arab tribe. Even after conversion, these new Muslims (mawali) did not achieve social and economic equality with the Arabs. The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented mawali, poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them with the help of their general Abu Muslim, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750.[97]
Golden Age (750–1258)
Main article: Islamic Golden Age
Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution
The Great Mosque of Kairouan, established in 670 in Kairouan, Tunisia, represents one of the best architectural examples of Islamic civilization.[98]

Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished in the "Islamic Golden Age", with its capital at the cosmopolitan city of Baghdad.[99] The major hadith collections were compiled and the four modern Sunni Madh'habs were established. Islamic law was advanced greatly by the efforts of the early 9th century jurist al-Shafi'i; he codified a method to establish the reliability of hadith, a topic which had been a locus of dispute among Islamic scholars.[100] Philosophers Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Al-Farabi sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like the 11th century theologian Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali argued against them and ultimately prevailed.[101] Sufism became a full-fledged movement that had moved towards mysticism and away from its ascetic roots, while Shi'ism split due to disagreements over the succession of Imams.[102] The spread of the Islamic dominion induced hostility among medieval ecclesiastical Christian authors who saw Islam as an adversary in the light of the large numbers of new Muslim converts. This opposition resulted in polemical treatises which depicted Islam as the religion of the antichrist and of Muslims as libidinous and subhuman.[103]

Córdoba, the largest Muslim city of the world in 1000, was home to about half a million people.[104] Public hospitals established during this time (called Bimaristan hospitals), are considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word[105] and issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors of medicine.[106][107] The Guinness Book of World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine as the oldest degree-granting university in the world with its founding in 859 CE.[108] The origins of the doctorate also dates back to the ijazat attadris wa 'l-ifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in madrasahs which taught law.[109] The first establishments for taking care of the mentally ill were also created in the Muslim world.[110] During this time, standards of experimental and quantification techniques were introduced to the scientific process to distinguish between competing theories as well as the tradition of citation.[111][112] Ibn Al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world’s first true scientist."[113] Legal institutions introduced in Islamic law include the trust and charitable trust (Waqf).[114][115]
Fragmentation and invasions
Main articles: Crusades and Reconquista
Further information: Mongol invasion of Central Asia and Ilkhanate
The interior of the Great Mosque of Córdoba, one of the finest examples of Ummayad architecture in Spain.

By the late 9th century, the Abbasid caliphate began to fracture as various regions gained increasing levels of autonomy. Across North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, emirates formed as provinces broke away. The monolithic Arab empire gave way to a more religiously homogenized Muslim world where the Shia Fatimids contested even the religious authority of the caliphate. In the 10th century the powerful Ghaznavids conquered the Afghan-Persian region and a large part of the Indian subcontinent in the name of Islam. They were replaced by the Ghurids in the 12th century. In 836, Caliph Al-Mu'tasim moved the capital of the Caliphate from Baghdad to the new city of Samarra, which would remain the capital until 892 when it was returned to Baghdad by al-Mu'tamid. By 1055 the Seljuq Turks had eliminated the Abbasids as a military power, nevertheless they continued to respect the caliph's titular authority.[116] During this time, expansion of the Muslim world continued, by both conquest and peaceful proselytism even as both Islam and Muslim trade networks were extending into sub-Saharan West Africa, Central Asia, Volga Bulgaria and the Malay archipelago.[19]

The Reconquista was launched against Muslim principalities in Iberia, and Muslim Italian possessions were lost to the Normans. From the 11th century onwards alliances of European Christian kingdoms mobilized to launch a series of wars known as the Crusades, aimed at reversing Muslim military conquests within the eastern part of the former Roman Empire, especially in the Holy Land. Initially successful in this aim, and establishing the Crusader states, these acquisitions were later reversed by subsequent Muslim generals such as Saladin, who recaptured Jerusalem in 1187.[117]

In the east the Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbassid dynasty at the Battle of Baghdad in 1258, as they overran the Muslim lands in a series of invasions. Meanwhile in Egypt, the slave-soldier Mamluks took control in an uprising in 1250[118] and in alliance with the Golden Horde halted the Mongol armies at the Battle of Ain Jalut. Over the next century the Mongol Khanates converted to Islam and this religious and cultural absorption ushered in a new age of Mongol-Islamic synthesis that shaped the further spread of Islam in central Asia, eastern Europe and the Indian subcontinent. The Crimean Khanate was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the end of the 17th century.[119] The Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world in the mid-14th century,[120] probably brought by merchants making use of free passage offered by the Pax Mongolica.[121]
New dynasties and colonialism (1030–1918)

In the 13th and 14th centuries the Ottoman Empire established itself after a string of conquests that included the Balkans, parts of Greece, and western Anatolia. In 1453 under Mehmed II the Ottomans captured Constantinople[122] and launched a European campaign which reached as far as the gates of Vienna in 1529.[123] Under Ottoman rule, many people in the Balkans became Muslim.
The Taj Mahal was built by Muslim rulers of the Mughal Empire in Agra, India.

From the 14th to the 16th century much of the eastern Islamic world was experiencing another golden age under the Timurid dynasty. In the early 16th century, the Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia and established Shi'a Islam as an official religion there, and despite periodic setbacks, the Safavids remained in power for two centuries until being usurped by the Hotaki dynasty in the early 18th century.

Beginning in the 13th century, Sufism underwent a transformation, largely as a result of the efforts of al-Ghazzali to legitimize and reorganize the movement. He developed the model of the Sufi order—a community of spiritual teachers and students.[124] Also of importance to Sufism was the creation of the Masnavi, a collection of mystical poetry by the 13th century Persian poet Rumi.

After the invasion of Persia and sack of Baghdad by the Mongols in the mid 13th century, Delhi became the most important cultural centre of the Muslim east.[125] Many Islamic dynasties ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent starting with the Ghaznavids in the 10th century. The prominent ones included the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857).

It was during the 18th century that the Wahhabi movement took hold in Saudi Arabia. Founded by the preacher Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Wahhabism is a fundamentalist ideology that condemns practices like Sufism and the veneration of saints as un-Islamic.[126] In the 19th century, the Salafi, Deobandi and Barelwi movements were initiated.

By the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the last Mughal dynasty,[127] and overthrew the Muslim-ruled Kingdom of Mysore. In the 19th century, the rise of nationalism resulted in Greece declaring and winning independence in 1829, with several Balkan states following suit after the Ottomans suffered defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. During this time, many Muslims migrated, as indentured servants, from mostly India and Indonesia to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas.[128] Additionally, the resulting urbanization and increase in trade in Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith. As a result, Islam in sub-Saharan Africa likely doubled between 1869 and 1914.[129] The Ottoman era came to a close at the end of World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in 1924.[130][131]
Modern times (1918–present)
Further information: Arab Revolt, Arab–Israeli conflict, Iranian revolution, and Islamic revival

By the early years of the 20th century, most of the Muslim world outside the Ottoman empire had been absorbed into the empires of non-Islamic European powers. After World War I losses, nearly all of the Ottoman empire was also parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence. In the course of the 20th century, most of these European-ruled territories became independent, and new issues such as oil wealth and relations with the State of Israel have assumed prominence.[132] The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), consisting of Muslim countries, was formally established in September 1969 after the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.[133]
The Sultan Ahmet Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

The 20th century saw the Islamic world increasingly exposed to outside cultural influences, bringing potential changes to Muslim societies. In response, new Islamic "revivalist" movements were initiated as a counter movement to non-Islamic ideas. Groups such as Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan and the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt advocate a totalistic and theocratic alternative to secular political ideologies. In countries like Iran, revolutionary movement replaced secular regime with an Islamic state. Sometimes called Islamist, they see Western cultural values as a threat, and promote Islam as a comprehensive solution to every public and private question of importance. Some Muslim organizations began using the media to promote the message of Islam. The first Islamic satellite network hosting a 24-hour service worldwide was MTA International, established by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in 1994. Zakir Naik, head of the Islamic Research Foundation, established another 24-hour Islamic international TV channel (Peace TV) in 2006.[134]

In the 21st century Muslims face questions relating to their faith, the nation state, science, and every day life. New Muslim intellectuals are beginning to arise, and are increasingly separating perennial Islamic beliefs from archaic cultural traditions to resolve these issues.[135] Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".[136] Women's issues receive a significant weight in the modern discourse on Islam because the family structure remains central to Muslim identity. Andrew Rippin states that while Muslims believe that Islam stands for both men and women, the social reality suggests otherwise.[137] In the Islamic debate on evolution, some scientists have expressed concern over Muslims' importation of creationist theories. Nevertheless, because Muslims view Islam as compatible with science, and the high prestige accorded to scientists in the Islamic world, research scientists can spread scientific ideas to Muslims.[138] In his book titled God Is Not Great, which criticizes all religions, Christopher Hitchens expresses his opinion by stating that Islam is "dogmatic," and "the fact remains that Islam's core claim – to be unimprovable and final – is at once absurd." Such claims have been challenged by many Muslim scholars and writers including Fazlur Rahman Malik,[139] Syed Ameer Ali,[140] Ahmed Deedat[141] and Yusuf Estes.[142] Montgomery Watt and Norman Daniel dismiss many of the criticisms as the product of old myths and polemics.[143]

As a result of immigration, many Muslims have formed significant communities in the United States and Europe (particularly Britain, France and Germany). A concern for Muslims has been the practice of their faith, and retention of their values and identity.[144] The rise of Islamophobia, according to Carl Ernst, had contributed to the negative views about Islam and Muslims in the West.[145] Paul Berman considers this to be "reactionary turn in the intellectual world" represented by Western scholars who idealize Islam.[146] Tariq Ramadan argues for the creation of a "European Islamic culture" that takes into account the customs and reality of life in Europe, while respecting Islamic values and guidelines.[147]
Denominations
Main article: Islamic schools and branches
Distribution of Islamic schools and branches in areas where large Muslim population are found
Movements in Islam

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Sep 06, 2005

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Jul 04, 2005

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Jan 09, 2005

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Dec 23, 2004

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Dec 21, 2004

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Dec 21, 2004

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Dec 21, 2004

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Dec 21, 2004

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